May Hughes Scrapbook

Summary Information

Emporia State University Special Collections and Archives
May Hughes Scrapbook
1.25 Linear feet
1 scrapbook containing photographs, letters, and autographs of Thomas Hughes’ family members, personal friends and influences, authors, artists, politicians, and prominent families in Great Britain and the United States of America, plus loose items, including photographs, letters, autographs, a magazine clipping, and 5 penny plains.

Preferred Citation note

Recommended citation: May Hughes Scrapbook, Emporia State University Archives, Emporia State University.

Processed by: Shari Scribner, July-December 2008.

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Biographical/Historical note

Mary Hughes Mary “May” Hughes was born February 29, 1860, in London, England. She was the youngest child of Thomas and Frances Ford Hughes. In 1883 she began keeping house for her uncle, John Hughes, Vicar of Logcot in Berkshire. She travelled to Cairo, Egypt, and Palestine in 1888. May became a member of the local Board of Governors in 1892; this group was in charge of the local workhouse. After her uncle died in 1895, May lived with her sister Lily and brother-in-law Reverend Ernest Carter at St. Jude’s in Whitechapel, London. She joined the Stepney Board of Governors and worked with a local Children’s Home. The Carters died in 1912 and in 1915 May moved into Number 40 Blackwell Buildings in Whitechapel. Following World War I she became a Labour borough councilor for Stepney, a Justice of the Peace for the Tower Division with specialization in rates and educational cases, and joined the Society of Friends (Quaker) church. She left the Labour Party in 1926 to become a Communist. That year she also bought an old public house and, in a pun on the phrase “Do Drop In,” named it The Dewdrop Inn: For Education and Joy. May moved into the home and it became a refuge for London’s poor and needy. She met, at his insistence, Mahatma Gandhi in 1931. May passed away on April 2, 1941.

Thomas Hughes Thomas Hughes was born October 20, 1822, in Uffington, Berkshire, England, to John and Margaret Wilkinson Hughes; he was the second of eight children. At the age of 8 he was sent to a private school in Twyford, and three years later, in February 1834, followed his elder brother George to Rugby School in Warwickshire to study under headmaster Dr. Thomas Arnold. He attended Oriel College, Oxford, participated in cricket, boxing, and rowing, and earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1845. He then read law at Lincoln’s Inn and Inner Temple and was admitted to the bar in 1848. Thomas married Frances “Fanny” Ford on August 17, 1847; they were the parents of nine children. A friend and admirer of John Frederick Denison Maurice and Charles Kingsley, Thomas became involved in the Christian Socialism movement that was active in England beginning in the 1830s. His activities included writing numerous articles and leaflets, giving speeches, and helping found the Working Men’s College in London in 1854, where he taught boxing and served as the school’s second principal from 1872-1883. Thomas also helped found the Co-Operative Wholesale Society in 1863. In April 1857 his book  Tom Brown’s School Days was published. The book was popular and brought him some wealth and fame. Thomas authored several other books but none were as universally accepted as the first. Other publications included a sequel,  Tom Brown at Oxford in 1861,  The Scouring of the White Horse in 1859,  Religio laici in 1868,  A Layman’s Faith in 1868,   Life of Alfred the Great in 1869,  Manliness of Christ in 1879,  Memoir of a Brother about his brother George in 1873,   G.T.T. Gone to Texas in 1884, and  James Fraser: Second Bishop of Manchester in 1887. Thomas supported the abolition of slaves prior to and during the American Civil War. He was elected a Member of Parliament as a representative of Lambeth from 1865-1868 and of Frome from 1868-1874; projects included support for cooperative societies and trade unions, a 54-hour work week, and improvements in public sanitation. Thomas served on two royal commissions that dealt with trade union issues and on the Jamaica Committee with John Stuart Mill, Charles Darwin, and Thomas Henry Huxley. In 1866 he became chairman of Crystal Palace Company. He was a member of the Reform League, appointed Queen’s Counsel in June 1869, and became a bencher in 1870. He established the colony of Rugby, Tennessee, in 1880, which was envisioned as a cooperative, class-free society where British citizens would work hard to develop a thriving agricultural community that combined the promise of America with British culture. His mother, brother Hastings, and niece Madge were some of the 120 inhabitants; Thomas built a house there and visited for a least a month annually during the colony’s early years. The colony never flourished and Thomas lost a great deal of money in the enterprise. He became a County Court Judge for the Chester circuit in July 1882. Thomas Hughes passed away on March 22, 1896. A white marble statue of Thomas Hughes is displayed at Rugby School. A Tom Brown’s Festival was held in Uffington by the Worker’s Educational Association of Swindon on May 18, 1912. That same year a memorial plaque to Thomas Hughes was established at the North Transept of Uffington Church. Another Tom Brown Festival was held in 1972 to celebrate the 150th anniversary of Thomas’s birth and led to an annual celebration, the White Horse Show, which raised money to build the Thomas Hughes Memorial Hall in 1975 and continues to serve as a fundraiser for the local villages. The Thomas Hughes Memorial Hall houses the foundation stone from the Co-operative Wholesale Society building. Tom Brown’s School Museum was opened by John Little in 1984 and includes his collection of 136 different editions of  Tom Brown’s School Days.

Nancy Hughes Nancy Hughes was married to Henry George Hughes, a grandson of Thomas and Frances Hughes and son of Henry George Hughes who moved to the United States from Great Britain in 1882. Her husband was born in Hymer, Kansas, graduated from Topeka High School and the University of Kansas School of Architecture, and worked for C. J. Nichols in Kansas City before forming his own firm, Hughes, Knight, and Remmele in Topeka; he passed away on September 24, 1960. They were the parents of two children, Suzanne and Roger. Suzanne attended Kansas State Teachers College of Emporia during the 1963/1964 school year.

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Scope and Contents note

This collection consists primarily of a scrapbook that was created for May Hughes by Mrs. John Shute Duncan and her daughter, Miss Agnes Duncan, who in 1880 married James Fraser, schoolmate and lifelong friend of Thomas Hughes; some other related documents found with the scrapbook are also included. May gave the scrapbook to her brother Henry George’s children - Thomas Richard, Carolyn, and Henry George Hughes - in 1921. Photographs, autographs, letters, and original writings make up the bulk of the contents. The scrapbook’s pages have been numbered with each number assigned to a double-page layout. The May Hughes Scrapbook consists of approximately 183 separate items that largely reflect the people May’s father, Thomas Hughes, was in contact with throughout his life in both personal and professional capacities. Included are Hughes family members, personal friends and influences, authors, artists, politicians, and prominent families in Great Britain and the United States of America. The items representing each individual are generally arranged on the same page. The letters are addressed to at least 15 individuals, with the bulk sent to Thomas Hughes or Miss Mary Stanley, older sister of Arthur Penrhyn Stanley. Letters by W. Holman Hunt and John Bright and a photograph of James Russell Lowell contain notations that they are provided specifically for May. Also included is a poem written to Thomas Hughes by Oliver Wendell Holmes. Seals representing in part royalty, castles, initials, businesses, and schools are impressed into the stationary of many of the letters. Three letters are written in French. A highlight of the scrapbook is three pages featuring photographs and letters by Queen Victoria, her husband Edward Albert, and each of their children; this section includes a wax seal. Most of the photographs have been glued to the pages, while paper items are attached with paper hinges. A few letters were glued and the information contained on the back pages is not accessible. Some pages feature labels identifying the individuals whose photographs, letters, or signatures are attached. A number of British and American photographers and firms are also represented. A letter dated May 13, 1911, was added by an unknown person at an unknown time. Some items were found loose in the scrapbook and are housed in a separate box; where possible, their original location in the scrapbook has been identified. Other loose items do not appear to have ever been in the scrapbook, including a letter written to Miss Stanley by nine-year-old E. H. Stanley, who is also represented on page 6 of the scrapbook as the 15th Earl of Derby. Another loose item is a magazine clipping from The Windsor Magazine, “Chronicles in Cartoon, a Record of Our Own Times,” part XV - Men of Letters, which features colored drawings of Thomas Carlyle, Charles Kingsley, Thomas Hughes, Rudyard Kipling, Max Pemberton, and Samuel Rutherford Crockett. Thomas Hughes’ grandmother, Mary Ann Watts Hughes, was an admirer and friend of Scottish author Sir Walter Scott. This collection also includes 5 pictures decorated by John Hugh Lockhart, grandson of Sir Walter Scott; this boy was the inspiration for   Tales of a Grandfather; Being Stories Taken from Scottish History: Humbly Inscribed to Hugh Littlejohn, Esq. John only lived to be 10 years old (1821-1831) and at an unknown time created these pictures; using an art technique known as “tinseling” he painted and embellished the drawn characters with fabric, colored metal, mesh, and metal decorations. Sometimes the extra materials were added on top of the picture, always very neatly within the lines of the original drawing, and sometimes the original picture had a piece cut away and the fabric was added underneath. Such pictures were called "penny plains" and were sold in London for a penny each to children. The outline drawings are of actors on the British stage representing the characters from their plays. The children would take the plain pictures home, decorate them, and play with them in their toy theaters. These toy theaters were fancy; people could buy paper curtains, lights, stage furniture and decorations, etc., all made out of paper, and the children would pretend to put on the plays their parents were enjoying on the London stages.

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Arrangement note

The scrapbook is in its own box. The file folders are arranged first by loose items from the scrapbook in page order, then by items that may never have been in the scrapbook in chronological order.

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Administrative Information

Publication Information

Emporia State University Special Collections and Archives July-December 2008

1200 Commercial St
Campus Box 4051
Emporia, KS, 66801
(620) 341-6431

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Related Materials

Related Archival Materials note

James Russell Lowell’s letter from the May Hughes Scrapbook is quoted on pages 186-187 of Thomas Hughes by Edward Clarence Mack and W. H. G. Armytage, published in 1952; it is cited as part of the Hughes Family Papers which at the time were in the possession of George Henry and Nancy Hughes. This and other books about or authored by Thomas Hughes and about Mary “May” Hughes are available from the circulating collections of Emporia State University’s William Allen White Library. Suzanne Hughes is pictured in the 1964  Sunflower yearbook as a freshman student, member of the Spanish Club and Symphonic Choir, and with Resident Aids and Officers. The William Allen White Collection includes the book  Letters of Lady Augusta Stanley: A Young Lady At Court 1849-1863, which consists of edited letters written by Augusta Bruce, future bride of Arthur Penrhyn Stanley. This book refers to her reading “Tom Brown” (page 132) and contains the transcript of a letter written by Mary Stanley (page 306). The William Allen White Library has additional materials about many of the individuals represented in the scrapbook, and Victorian England. Other examples of scrapbooks are available in the Emporia State University Archives.

Separated Materials note

1 oversized folder in oversize drawer.

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Controlled Access Headings

Corporate Name(s)

  • Church of England. Diocese of ondon. Bishop (1856-1869:Tait).
  • Elliott & Fry .
  • England Britain-- Social life customs-- 19th century.
  • England--Intellectual life-- 9th century.
  • Great Britain -- Social conditions -- 19th century.
  • Great Britain -- Social policy. .
  • Great Britain-- History-- Victoria. 1837-1901.
  • Great Britain--Politics and government-- 1837-1901.
  • Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons.
  • Great Britain. Parliament. House of Lords.
  • Lock Whitfield.
  • Lombardi & Co..
  • London (England) -- Social conditions.
  • London Stereoscopic Company .
  • Mayall.
  • Rejlander, O.G. (Oscar Gustav), 1813-1875.
  • United States -- Intellectual life -- 19th century.
  • United States -- Politics and government -- 19th century. .
  • W & D. Downey.

Family Name(s)

  • Hughes Family

Personal Name(s)

  • Adams, Charles Francis- correspondence, 1807-1886.
  • Agassiz, Louis--correspondence, 1807-1973.
  • Agassiz, Louis--photographs, 1807-1873.
  • Ailaire, Bartholomew T. - photographs.
  • Ailaire, Bartholomew T.-- correspondence.
  • Albert, Prince Consort of Victoria, Queen of Great Britain, 1819-1861.
  • Albert, Prince Consort of Victoria, Queen of Great Britain-photographs, 1819-1861.
  • Alice, Grand Duchess, consort of Ludwig IV, Grand Duke of Hess-Darmstadt- photographs, 1843-1878.
  • Alice, Grand Duchess, consort of Ludwig IV, Grand Duke of Hesse-Darmstadt- correspondence, 1843-1878.
  • Arnold, Matthew- correspondence, 1822-1888.
  • Arnold, Matthew- photographs, 1812-1888.
  • Arnold, Thomas--correspondence, 1795-1842.
  • Arnold, Thomas--photographs, 1795-1842.
  • Aronld-Forster, H.O. (Hugh Oakeley) - photographs, 1855-1909.
  • Arthur, Prince, Prince, Duke if photographs, 1850-1942- .
  • Baker, Samuel White, Sir- photographs, 1821-1893.
  • Bateman, Kate Josephine- correspondence, 1843-1917.
  • Beatrice, Princess, consort of Henry, Prince of Battenberg- photopgraphs, 1853-1944.
  • Beatrice, Princess, consort of Henry, Prince of Battenberg-correspondence, 1857-1944.
  • Bright, John Edwar, b.--photographs, 1811
  • Browning, Robert- correspondence, 1812-1889.
  • Browning, Robert- photographs, 1812-1889.
  • Bryant, William Cullen, 1794-1878.
  • Carlyle, Thomas--correspondence, 1795-1881.
  • Carlyle, Thomas--photographs, 1795-1881.
  • Charteris, Francis Richard- photographs, 1818-1914.
  • Charteris, Hugo Richard- photographs, 1857-1937.
  • Derby, Edward Henry Stanley, Earl of, --correspondence, 1826-1893
  • Derby, Edward Henry Stanley, Earl of--photographs, 1826-1893
  • Dickens, Charles--photographs, 1812-1870.
  • Dufferin and Ava, Frederick Temple Blackwood, Marquis of- correspondence, 1826-1902.
  • Dufferin and Ava, Frederick Temple Blackwood, Marquis of- photographs, 1826-1902.
  • Duncan, John Shute, Mrs.
  • Edward Vii, King of Britain-correspondence, 1841-1910.
  • Edward Vii, King of Great Britain-photographs, 1841-1910.
  • Ellicombe, H.T. -- correspondence.
  • Emerson, Ralph Waldo- correspondence, 1803-1882.
  • Emerson, Ralph Waldo--photographs, 1803-1882.
  • Everett, Edward- correspondence, 1818-1903.
  • Ford, Carries -- photographs.
  • Ford, James--photographs, 1797-1877.
  • Ford, Richard -- correspondence, 1796-1858.
  • Ford, Richard -- photographs, 1796-1858.
  • Forster, W.E. (William Edward) -- photographs, 1818-1886.
  • Forster, W.E. (Williams Edward) -- correspondence, 1818-1886.
  • Franz, Herzog von Teck -- correspondence, 1807-1900.
  • Franz, Prinz, Herzog von Teck -- correspondence, 1837-1900.
  • Fraser, Agnes Ellen Frances Duncan.
  • Garrison, William Lloyd -- correspondence, 1805-1979.
  • Granville, Granville George Leveson-Gower, Earl 1815-1891- photographs, 1815-1891
  • Granville, Granville George Leveson-Gower, Earl- correspondence, 1815-1891
  • Great Britain, --History--Victory, 1837-1901
  • Harrison, Frederic- correspondence, 1831-1923
  • Helena Agusta Victoria, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein-correspondence, 1846-1923
  • Helena Augusta Victoria, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein-photopgraphs, 1846-1923
  • HIll, Octavia-correspondence, 1838-1912
  • Hoar, E.R. (Ebenezer Rockwood), 1816-1895
  • Holmes, Oliver Wendell- correspondence, 1809-1894
  • HOlmes, Oliver Wendell- photographs, 1809-1894
  • Hughes , Thomas--photographs, 1822-1896
  • Hughes, John-- correspondence, 1797-1877
  • Hughes, John--correspondence, 1790-1857
  • Hughes, Mary, 1860-1941.
  • HUghes, Mary--Photographs, 1860-1941
  • Hughes, Thomas, 1822-1896
  • Hunt, William Holman--photographs, 1827-1910
  • Hutton, Richard Holt- correspondence, 1826-1897
  • Iddesleigh, Stafford Henry Northcote of - photographs, 1818-1887
  • Iddesleigh, Stafford Henry Northcote of- correspondence, 1818-1887
  • Jowett, Benjamin-correspondence, 1817-1893
  • Keble, John--correspondence, 1792-1866
  • Keble, John--photographs, 1792-1866
  • Kemble, Henry Stephen, 1789-1836
  • Kingsley, Charles--correspondence, 1819-1875
  • Kingsley, Charles--photographs, 1819-1875
  • Leighton, Frederick- correspondence
  • Leighton, Frederick- photographs
  • Leopold, Prince, Duke of Albany -photographs, 1853-1884
  • LInd, Jenny- correspondence, 1820-1887
  • Lind, Jenny- photographs, 1820-1887
  • Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth--correspondence, 1807-1882
  • Longfellow, Henry Wasworth - photographs, 1807-1882
  • Louise, Princess, Duchess of Argyll-photographs, 1848-1939
  • Lowell, James Russell- correspondence, 1819-1891
  • Lowell, James Russell--photographs, 1819-1891
  • Manning, Henry Edward-correspondence, 1808-1892
  • Maurice, Frederick Denison--correspondence, 1805-1872
  • MIll, John Stuart- correspondence , 1806-1873
  • Mill, John Stuart- photographs, 1806-1873
  • MIllais, John Everett, Si- coorespondence, 1829-1896
  • Motley, John Lothrop- correspondence, 1814-1877
  • Motley, John Lothrop--photographs, 1814-1877
  • Murchison, Roderick Impey, Sir--correspondence, 1792-1871
  • Murchison, Roderick Impey, Sir--photographs, 1792-1871
  • Nichols, George- correspondence, 1809-1882
  • Norton, Caroline Sheridan- correspondence, 1808-1877
  • Oliphant, Laurence- correspondence, 1829-1888
  • Owen, Richard, 1804-1892
  • Palgrave, Francis Turner-correspondence, 1824-1897
  • Palgrave, Francis Turner-photogpraphs, 1824-1897
  • Plimsoll, Samuel-correspondence, 1794-1898
  • Plimsoll, Samuel-photographs, 1794-1898
  • Quincy, Josiah- correspondence, 1772-1864
  • Rejlander, O.G. (Oscar Gustav), 1813-1875
  • Ruskin , John--photographs, 1819-1900
  • Ruskin, John--correspondence, 1819-1900
  • Salisbury, Robert Cecil, Marquess of- correspondence, 1830-1903
  • Salisbury, Robert Cecil, Marquess of- photographs, 1830-1903
  • Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Alfred, Duke of-photographs, 1844-1900
  • Scott, Walter, Sir- photographs, 1771-1832
  • Scott, Winfield, 1786-1866
  • Shaftesbury, Anthony Ashley Cooper, Earl of--photopgraphs, 1801-1885
  • Siddons, Sarah- correspondence, 1755-1831
  • Smith, Goldwin- correspondence, 1823-1910
  • Smith, Goldwin- photographs, 1823-1910
  • Stanley , Arthur Penhyn--photographs, 1815-1881
  • Stanley, Arthur Penhyn--correspondence, 1815-1881
  • Stanley, Mary, 1813?-1879
  • Sterling, William--correspondence
  • Stone, Frank- correspondence, 1800-1859
  • Stone, Frank-coorespondence, 1800-1859
  • Tait, Archibald Campbell--correspondence, 1811-1882
  • Tait, Archibald Campbell--photographs, 1811-1882
  • Taylor, Bayard- correspondence, 1825-1878
  • Tennyson, Alfred Tennyson, Baron- photographs, 1809-1892
  • Trollope, Anthony--correspondence, 1815-1882
  • Trollope, Anthony--photographs, 1815-1882
  • Victoria, Empress, consort of Frederick III, German Emperor-correspondence, 1840-1901
  • Victoria, Empress, consort of Frederick III, German Emperor-photographs, 1840-1901
  • Victoria, Queen of Great Britain-photographs, 1819-1901
  • Victoria, Queenof Great Britain, 1819-1901
  • Walker, Samuel A.
  • Watts, George Frederick, 1817-1904
  • Wellington, Arthur Wellesley, Duke of-correspondence, 1769-1852
  • Whittier, John Greenleaf- photographs, 1807-1892
  • Wiseman, Nicholas Patrick- corrrespondence, 1802-1865
  • Wiseman, Nicholas Patrick-photographs, 1802-1865
  • Wolff, Bernard C. (Bernard Crause), 1794-1870
  • Woolner, Thomas- correspondence, 1825-1892
  • Woolner, Thomas- photographs, 1825-1892


  • Artists -- Great Britain.
  • Education -- Great Britain.
  • Actors -- England.
  • Art, Victorian -- England.
  • Authors, American.
  • Authors, English.
  • Authors, Scottish.
  • Cartes-de-visite (Card photographs)
  • Communists -- England -- London.
  • Cooperation -- Great Britain.
  • English fiction -- 19th century.
  • English poetry -- 19th century.
  • Judges -- England -- London.
  • Lawyers -- England -- London.
  • Philanthropists -- England -- London.
  • Photograph albums -- England.
  • Photographers -- England.
  • Politicians -- Great Britain.
  • Politicians -- United States.
  • Quakers -- England -- London.
  • Religion and science -- England.
  • Scrapbooks -- England.
  • Social values -- Great Britain -- 19th century.
  • Socialism -- Great Britain.
  • Socialism, Christian.
  • Theater -- England -- London -- 19th century.
  • Theater and children.
  • Toy theaters -- England.
  • Women philanthropists -- England -- London.
  • Wothlytype.

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Collection Inventory

Box Oddsize

scrapbook was created for May Hughes by Mrs. John Shute Duncan and her daughter, Miss Agnes Duncan, 1876. 

1 1
Box Folder

Letter- To Mr. Hughes from Lord Shaftsbury, (From page 6 of Scrapbook.) July 10,1873. 

2 1

Letter – From J.R. Lowell, (From page 10 of scrapbook.) June 2, 1873.  

2 2

Signature - Unidentified, undated. (From page 26 of scrapbook.) undated. 

2 3

Letter – To the Revd., E.C. Carter, (From page [27] of scrapbook.) May 13, 1911.  

2 4

Magazine clipping - The Windsor Magazine, “Chronicles in Cartoon, a Record of Our Own Times,” part XV – Men of letters, pages 367-368, [381]-382, undated. 

1 5

5 pieces of artwork created by John Hugh Lockhart,5 pieces of artwork created by John Hugh Lockhart, 5 pieces of artwork created by John Hugh Lockhart, circa 1821-1831. 

2 6

List of individuals represented in the scrapbook, undated. 

1 7

Photograph - Carried Ford and Arthur FOrd, undated. 

2 8

Envelope, undated 

2 9

Note - Writte, by H.O. Arnold, undated. 

2 10

Paper picture - Of Fredrick Denison Maurice, undated. 

2 11

Part of letter signed by Thomas Hughes, on Crystal Palace S.E. stationery, undated. 

2 12

Letter to Miss Stanley from E.H. Stanley, May 10, 1835. 

2 13

Photographs - Hugo Richard Charteris and Francis Richard Charteris, circa 1859. 

2 14

Photograph - Mr. Thursby, 1973. 

2 15

Photograph - Sir Samuel Backer, 1974. 

2 16

Program - Memorial Service for CHarles Kingsley, M.A., January 31,1875. 

2 17