The course provides familiarity with assessment principles in K-12 school settings, as undertaken to support students in general education as well as to determine needs and eligibility in special education and gifted. It covers various domains including intelligence/aptitude, achievement, language, social/behavioral, adaptive, motor, and general development. Understanding of test scores and their meaning, and selection of valid tools is reviewed. Multicultural and bias issues, and other factors which contribute to error in assessment are key components as well as ethics and legal obligations as relate to the assessment process. Tools such as norm-referenced tests, criterion-referenced tests, functional behavioral assessment, systematic observation, and informal/authentic assessment such as portfolios are included.