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Unless otherwise noted, information contained in each edition of the Kansas School Naturalist reflects the knowledge of the subject as of the original date of publication.

Vol. 34, No. 1 - October 1987 - Emporia State University Tree TrailCover: The cover illustration was drawn by his wife, Wendy, a gifted artist and elementary teacher. The illustrations of raptors on the center pages of this issue were taken from A Field Guide for Hawks seen in the Northeast and are used with the generous permission of Paul Carrier and the New England Hawk Watch Study.

Volume 34, Number 3 & 4 -
April 1988

Raptors in Your Classroom





Editor: Robert F. Clarke

Editorial Committee: Tom Eddy, Gilbert A. Leisman, Gaylen Neufeld, John Parrish

Online edition by: Terri Weast

The Kansas School Naturalist is sent upon request, free of to Kansas teachers, school board members and administrators, librarians, conservationists, youth leaders, and other adults interested in nature education. Back numbers are sent free as long as supply lasts. Send requests to The Kansas School Naturalist, Division of Biological Sciences, State University, Kansas, 66801-5087.

The Kansas School Naturalist is published in October, December, February, and April of each year by Emporia State University, 1200 Commercial, Emporia, Kansas 66801-5087. Second-class postage paid at Emporia, Kansas.

"Statement required by the Act of August 12, 1970 Section 3685, Title 34, United States Code, showing Ownership, Management, and Circulation." The Kansas School Naturalist is published in October, December, February, and April. Editorial Office and Publication Office at 1200 Commercial Street, Emporia, Kansas 66801-5087. The Naturalist is edited and published by Emporia State University, Kansas. Robert F. Clarke, Division of Biological Sciences.


Bob Rose received both his B.S.Ed. and M.S. degrees from Emporia State. He is currently Projects Coordinator of the Science Education Center at E.S.U. Recently, he returned from two years of teaching in the Philippines. Before that, Bob taught biology at Paola High School for four years.

Raptors in Your Classroom

by Bob Rose


I was standing right behind Sandy's outstretched arm with my camera posed as the large Harris' Hawk came gliding low over the heads of students seated in the Lawrence High School auditorium. I was so excited at seeing this magnificent bird swooping in for a landing with its wings flared and talons spread, seemingly aimed right for my camera, that I missed that first photo. There were plenty of opportunities for more photos, as the girls from the Raptor Rehabilitation and Propagation Project, Inc., brought 13 different raptors with them. Arrangements made by biology teacher Ken Highfill allowed them to repeat their raptor flight program two more times that morning. The rest of their cast included a Red-tailed Hawk, Broad-winged Hawk, Cooper's Hawk, Peregrine Falcon, Kestrel, Great Horned Owl, two Screech Owls (red and gray), Saw-whet Owl, Barn Owl, Turkey Vulture, and the big Golden Eagle. The chance that students would have seen all of those raptors in the wild is remote, almost as rare as raptors themselves.

Because of their elevated position in the food chain, there are naturally fewer raptors than other birds. In a few cases, raptor populations have been unnaturally reduced to the point of extinction. People with a poor understanding of raptors and other components of food webs have caused some catastrophic environmental blunders.

Unfamiliarity with these hunting birds is probably one cause for this misunderstanding. The majority of our students just don't see these birds in their natural habitat. Using raptors in the classroom is an excellent and exciting way to teach lessons which address important environmental issues. Raptors instill a sense of awe in most of us and can grab the attention of even complacent learners.

Generally speaking, a raptor is any of the birds of prey. Your students will probably understand that this includes hawks, eagles, and falcons. They may be surprised to know that owls, vultures, and condors are also raptors. Raptors are characterized by having hooked beaks for tearing meat and long sharp claws, called talons, for grasping and killing their prey. (The vultures are the only raptors that don't kill their own food.) Raptors have excellent hearing and eyesight. Except for the vultures, most have practically no sense of smell.


Many species of raptors are threatened or endangered. As many as 100 species of raptors may be near extinction by the year 2000, according to the Peregrine Fund.

Today we know that habitat disruption (and destruction) is the main cause of lowered raptor populations. Still, for a long time raptors were persecuted and intentionally targeted for eradication. Farmers and ranchers of the 19th and early part of the 20th century labelled eagles as the villains threatening their livestock. Hunting pressure virtually extirpated the Golden Eagle from areas east of the Mississippi river. In the West, eagles have even been hunted from airplanes and helicopters.

The "Chicken Hawk Syndrome" continues today despite the elimination of bounties. It is chiefly the buteo (broad-winged) hawks which are persecuted. However, it is chiefly the Accipter hawks which are the true bird eaters. The Goshawk, in particular, is more likely to harvest a chicken than a Red-tailed Hawk.

Accipter is Latin for "bird of prey." Strictly speaking, "hawk" refers to only the birds in this genus. However, in common usage, "hawk" is used for any raptor other than an eagle, osprey, owl, falcon, kite, vulture, or condor. Accipter, in turn, is commonly used to refer to any hawk, falcon, eagle, or bird of prey other than an owl.

The movement of agriculture across America provided another incidental element in reducing raptor numbers. As forests were cleared and as prairies were plowed, nesting habitat was reduced and many of the small prey animal populations suffered drastic alterations. Massive declines in prairie dog populations contributed to proportional losses for Kansas raptors. Many raptors retreated from their historical ranges or died.

Chemically induced infertility in raptors has been well documented. Seemingly effective synthetic pesticides (greatly enhanced from World War II chemical warfare research) possessed an invisible element which affected more than the "bugs," and the raptors suffered. Biological magnification resulted in poisons accumulating at the tops of food chains, where raptors reside. Even when the concentration of the chemicals was not enough to kill the birds outright, it significantly reduced their capacity to reproduce. Nesting raptors would not lay eggs, or their eggs' shells were too thin to survive incubation.

Because of chemical disruptions in the food chains, the Peregrine Falcon was completely lost east of the Mississippi River. As few as 25 known pairs survived in its western range. In 1984, the only known nesting pair of Golden Eagles east of the Mississippi River was in Maine. Our national symbol, the Bald Eagle, was reduced from a population which may have been as high as 75,000 in the 17th and 18th centuries to as few as 417 nesting pairs in a 1963 survey. By the early 1980's, only a single breeding pair of Bald Eagles could be confirmed in New York state.

Today, there are as many as 50,000 Bald Eagles in Alaska. However, 43 of the "lower 48" states still list the Bald Eagle as "endangered." They are "threatened" in the remaining five states. Our neighboring state of Missouri (with 1300 winter eagles) has the third largest population of Bald Eagles, behind only Alaska and Washington. Here in Kansas our winter Bald Eagle populations range from 350-500 birds.

The Peregrine Falcon is a splendid example of a raptor which can potentially live in harmony with humans. Once we quit spreading poisons, like DDT, in their environment, the Peregrines began a strong comeback. Peregrines adapted well to our cities, finding suitable nesting sites on tall buildings and adequate supplies of prey in other urbanized birds such as sparrows and pigeons. Peregrines are now successfully nesting in New York City, Philadelphia, Washington D.C., Toronto, and Montreal.

The national awareness which has spread to the defense and protection of our total environment can be linked to the plight and attention given to our raptors. The dilemma of the raptors is really a human predicament. If we can not accommodate the raptors, we may not be able to save ourselves from our own poisons, pollutants, and habitat manipulations.

The great California Condor is the latest victim. For all practical purposes this largest of our North American raptors no longer exists in the wild. Wildlife authorities decided to bring in all of the known nesting condors. The condors' situation seems so drastic and hopeless that its only chance of survival is believed to be in captivity. Hopefully, the big birds can be bred and reared in captivity, to be returned to the wild some day. A lot more will have to be learned about condors and even more about humans before that will occur. Like the Passenger Pigeon, we may watch the last of this unique species die in a cage.


Nearly every raptor is either wholly beneficial or neutral to crucial human interests. The thousands of dollars the birds of prey save farmers by regulating rodent and seed eating bird populations should have meaning to everybody. Raptors have no harmful effects on gamebird populations.

The majority of raptors are good "mousers." Red-shouldered Hawks eat a lot of amphibians and reptiles. Broad-winged Hawks eat a lot of insects. The Peregrine and Prairie Falcons feed on smaller birds and mammals. Bald Eagles and Osprey are primarily fish eaters.

The accipiters prey mainly on other birds. Quail hunters used to condemn the Northern Harrier (Marsh Hawk), but scientific research revealed that harriers destroy many cotton rats, which are serious enemies of nesting Bobwhites. A similar prejudice in New Zealand resulted in 200,000 harriers being collected for bounties, to supposedly protect introduced California Quail, which the harriers were too slow to catch. Harriers will take young pheasants, but not adults. Pen-reared pheasants will ignore Broad-winged Hawks flying overhead, but frantically scramble for cover when a Goshawk appears.

The owls' situation is even more commendable, with a few exceptions. A three-year study of 2,200 Barn Owl pellets revealed 6,815 prey animals. Nearly 99% of the prey animals were small mammals, mostly mice and voles. The remaining 1 % of prey were birds, mostly House Sparrows and Starlings. There was not one poultry or game bird found in the pellets. Burrowing Owls are mainly insectivorous. Screech Owls feed chiefly on insects, rodents, and smaller birds. One Screech Owl study reported one-seventh of its diet to be House Sparrows. The Snowy Owl will feed on any prey it can catch, which is not surprising of a raptor that lives in the harsh Arctic.

Great Horned Owls are the most versatile culprits. Here in the Midwest, Great Horned Owls feed primarily on rabbits. Being opportunists, they also eat ducks (wild and domestic), pheasants, quail, poultry, ground squirrels, and other small mammals. Since they have no sense of smell, it is not surprising that they regularly take skunks. They occasionally take house cats, including one of my own dear pets.

Nearly all raptors are at least partial scavengers. The normally fish-eating Bald Eagles follow the flocks of migrating waterfowl south, cleaning up the ducks and geese which succumb to natural and unnatural causes. Vultures, of course, are the best-known scavengers.


Owls (and some hawks) form pellets of undigested bones, fur, and feathers from their prey. These pellets are formed in the gizzard and are ejected from the mouth.

If you or your students know of a regular owl roost, you can collect pellets and perform some simple investigations with pellet dissections. Forceps and probes for carefully teasing apart the dried pellets are the only necessary tools. Dissecting microscopes or hand lenses will be helpful in identifying skulls and other small bones. An excellent aid in identifying prey skeletons is A Key to the Skulls of North American Mammals, by Byran P. Glass. A more concise key, with more natural history data, is The Wild Mammals of Missouri, by Charles W. and Elizabeth R. Schwartz. Biologists have confirmed the presence of doubtful mammal species in some areas based on the contents of owl pellets.


Professional ornithologists and wildlife biologists band raptors in all parts of the world. Records of returned bird bands provide basic data on movement and, sometimes, causes of raptor mortality. For information about banding projects in Kansas contact Gerald Horak, Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks, 1830 Merchant, Emporia, KS 66801. Tel: 316-342-0658. "The Goshutes Raptor Project," is a 16-minute video program showing how raptors are trapped, measured, banded, and released. Order it from Steve Hoffman, Western Foundation for Raptor Conservation, Inc. , P.O. Box 304, Albuquerque, NM 87103. Telephone: 505-291-9224.

click here for a larger image


click here to see a larger image


It is very likely that birdwatching is practiced by more people than any other outdoor activity. Hawkwatching, as a separate activity, is also becoming popular. There is even a Hawk Migration Association of North America, HMANA for short.

A lot of raptors migrate seasonally, but the hawks do so in the most noticeable numbers. More is known about hawk migration routes from
eastern North America than from the West. At the 1987 annual meeting of the Raptor Research Foundation (in Boise, Idaho). I listened to several reports on migration studies. Nearly every western researcher pleaded for more help in watching migrating hawks. Very, very little data are available for hawk migrations through Kansas and the Great Plains. Several hawkwatching hot spots exist outside of Kansas, such as the famous Hawk Mountain in Pennsylvania. Duluth, Minnesota, is the closest such hot spot to us. I know several people who keep records of raptors observed on field trips or even casual highway travels. Biology teacher Stan Roth has been keeping such records for several years. However, there are no well-known "hot spots" in Kansas for watching hawk migrations.

During the 1985 migration, a record 5671 raptors flew over a station near St. Louis, Missouri, at a rate of 35 birds per hour of watching. Even closer to home, the Burroughs Audubon Society reported a respectable outing near Grandview, Missouri, in September, 1987. By noon they "had seen over a dozen each of red-tails and broad-wings, about half that many each of Cooper's, sharp-shins, kestrels and turkey vultures, and - the highlights of the day - two merlins and two peregrines." [sic]

Even for experienced birders, field identification of raptors can be challenging. During migrations, your most common view will be from beneath a high soaring bird. Familiarity with silhouettes can help then. At other times standard field identification guides are useful. The latest in the Peterson Field Guide series is A Field Guide to Hawks, by William S. Clark. There is an excellent 15-page supplement in the wildlife education materials supplied to every Kansas school by the Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks. A Field Guide for Hawks seen in the Northeast is a 6-page foldout pamphlet with excellent depictions of raptors. Single copies are available for $1.00 donations and quantity discounts are offered to schools. Write to HAWKS, P.O. Box 212, Portland, CT 06480.

HMANA Central Region editor, Mark Peters, can help you get official hawkwatching report forms, instruction folders, and station description cards. The forms call for you to keep records of visibility, air temperatures, sky conditions, wind speed and direction, altitude of flight, and flight direction. Even if you don't use the HMANA form, it may be helpful to keep similar records.

There is a good account of a high school "hawkwatch" in the February, 1984, HMANA newsletter. The article reports on hawk migration data collected by fifteen New Jersey high schools. Reporter, Debbie Keller, co-authored an 80-page, illustrated, soft-cover workbook for high school students titled, Hawk Watch - A Guide for High School Students. You can order it from HMANA for $9.50, or you may wish to contact Debbie directly at P.O. Box 3, Cape May Point, NJ 08212.

Fall is the best time to look for hawk migrations. Anytime from mid-September through mid-November could be productive, with numbers expected to taper off through December. Weather will play a big role in your success. If temperatures have been gradually cooling, the hawks will most likely be moving south, widely spaced in time and distance. If a sudden cold storm or major cold front passes through, followed by a warmer wind, the hawks may begin migrating in large numbers. The same holds true for spring migrations, when hawks can be anticipated to fly north on warm southerly winds following the passage of a major cold front.


Organized group trips to see eagles in the wild, such as those sponsored by Audubon chapters, are becoming popular. Kansas is the winter home to about 350-500 Bald Eagles. The eagles congregate along the eastern portions of the Kansas River drainage and many of the larger reservoirs. December 5, 1987 was Eagle Day at Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge, in northwest Missouri. I saw many of the 135 eagles there that day. I was back on December 12th, and the refuge count was up to 160. [Actually, I was going there to photograph some of the 370,000 Snow Geese.] In December and January you have a very good chance of seeing Bald Eagles from your automobile as you cross the Kaw River bridge at Lecompton. Though they like to sit in trees, don't overlook the ice pack itself, as Bald Eagles typically sit and eat right on the ice.


Though raptors are rare, you or your students might come across a wounded bird some day. If you do find an injured raptor, contact your local sheriff. He can make immediate contact with one of the more than 50 wildlife conservation officers in Kansas. The bird can then be shuttled to a rehabilitation facility which is prepared to help it. Rehab centers have established a cadre of volunteer drivers. These authorized persons will transport the injured bird to the nearest rehab center.

The Prairie Raptor Project (PRP) is the largest statewide organization dealing with rehabilitation of injured birds of prey. Education is one of their main goals, along with the desire to release the birds back into the wild. The PRP handles up to 200 raptors per year, with as many as 70 on hand at one time. The PRP works closely with the Smoky Hills Audubon Society and the Wildlife and Parks Department. They also receive direct cooperation from the Kansas State University Veterinary Medical Center in Manhattan. I can highly recommend the PRP for a class field trip. Other rehabilitation facilities in Kansas are located in El Dorado, Lawrence, Pittsburg, and Wichita.


It is ILLEGAL to possess a bird of prey without proper licensing. However, in an emergency, you can assist the proper authorities. Indeed, a wounded raptor requires immediate specialized care. Any delay reduces the bird's chance for recovery. Most veterinarians lack the special facilities and the practical experience to properly handle an injured raptor.


Only licensed persons are authorized to handle a raptor. Don't encourage your students to bring them into your classroom and don't tolerate breaches of the law.

There are, fortunately, legal avenues for getting raptors into your classroom. Most rehabilitation centers will make maximum use of their unreleasable raptors by taking them on educational tours. Maure Weigel, of the Prairie Raptor Project, regularly makes presentations to school groups. He will bring along a live "mystery bird" to reveal at the end of his excellent educational slide program. If you have some science club money, or a sympathetic budget administrator, an outstanding presentation for your science classes (or for the whole school) is available from the Raptor Rehabilitation and Propagation Project Inc., in Eureka, Missouri. They charge $250 per day, plus travel expenses. Nevertheless, they will repeat the performance two or three times in one day for you. This is a professional presentation, which utilizes several species of birds during the flight segment of its program. With some planning, several schools could share the costs of bringing them into your area. Zoos will sometimes bring raptors (and other animals) to schools.

When you can't actually bring the birds to your students, take your students to the birds. Most zoos are eager to assist teachers with specific field trip objectives. Don't overlook the value of static displays in natural history museums. The Richard Schmidt Natural History Museum on the Emporia State University campus has some of the very best taxidenny specimens of raptors (and other birds and animals) in North America. The Office of Public Education in the University of Kansas Natural History Museum (Lawrence, KS 66045) will check out a hands-on kit with bird specimens, including some raptors. They continue to rent these kits at amazingly low prices.


  1. Approach the bird from the rear if possible. Anticipate that the bird will struggle. A raptor's feet and talons are its primary means of defense. Its hooked beak is also dangerous.
  2. When close enough , completely cover the bird with a towel, blanket, jacket, or other LIGHTWEIGHT item.
  3. Quickly restrain the bird under the covering, grasping both legs firmly.
  4. As the bird calms down, gather the covering together, being careful to keep the bird's wings folded against its body.
  5. If required, the covering can be fashioned into a sack using a bootlace. EXTREME CARE must be used when the bird is transported in this way. A raptor can overheat quickly on a warm day.
  6. Transfer the bird to a more suitable enclosure ASAP.
  7. A cardboard box works well for safe transportation.
  8. Contact the local sheriff immediately!


When you and your students get seriously involved with studying raptors, you will want to consider an extended field trip to our only national raptor refuge - the Snake River Birds of Prey Area (SRBOPA). The SRBOPA is a few miles southwest of Boise, Idaho. More than 700 pairs of raptors (14 species) nest there along 81 miles of the Snake River canyon. Viewing points from the canyon rim are easily accessible. Canoeing, camping, and fishing along the river is also allowed, with a permit. There are nearby campgrounds, such as those on C.J. Strike Reservoir and Cove Arm Reservoir. Bruneau Dunes State Park is not far from the upstream limits of the refuge. I have never been to the nearby Bruneau Canyon overlook without seeing an eagle. Spring and early summer are the best times to visit. Late summer temperatures in the canyon can exceed 100 degrees F. Group tours can be arranged. Contact the Boise District Office, Bureau of Land Management, 3948 Development Avenue, Boise, ID 83705. Telephone: 208-334-1582.

While you're in the area, be sure to visit The World Center for Birds of Prey. They house raptors from around the world. Some are on display. Others are only observable via television monitoring screens focused on their incubator and brooder laboratories. The Birds of Prey Center conducts tours throughout the year, but their best tours occur during the breeding season (March through July). For more information or to arrange a tour contact: The World Center for Birds of Prey, c/o The Peregrine Fund, 5666 West Flying Hawk Lane, Boise, ID 83709. Tel: 208-362-3716.

Also, stop by the Boise Zoo to see how their newly established rehabilitation program is progressing. Nearby Boise State University has a moderate-sized exhibit of bird specimens, including raptors.



Carolina Biological Supply. 2700 York Road, Burlington, NC 27215 . Tel: 800-334-5551.

LAB-AIDS , Inc. 130 Wilbur Place, Bohemia, NY 11716.

Sargent-Welch. 7300 North Linden Ave., P.O. Box 1026, Skokie, IL 60077. Tel: 312-677 -0600.

Wards Biological Supply. 5100 West Henrietta Rd., P.O. Box 92912, Rochester, NY 14692-9012. Tel: 800-962-2660.


Bald Eagle Mobile. From Skyflight, Inc., P.O . Box 3393, Bellevue, WA 98009. Tel: 206-462-0759. Bald Eagle and other non-raptors.

Barn Owl Nest Box Plans. Soil Conservation Service, 1523 E. Valley Parkway, #205, Escondido, CA 92027.

Burrowing Owl Artificial Nest Burrows (plans) Bruce Olenick, Dept. of Biological Sciences, Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID 83209.

Color Slide Sets.

1. VIREO (Visual Resources for Ornithology). Academy of Natural Sciences, 19th and The Parkway, Philadelphia, PA 19103.

2. HMANA (Hawk Migration Assoc. of North America). Sets: Identification of Daytime Raptors scripted for secondary schools. Order from Charles Ziegenfus, Dept. of Mathematics, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA 22801.

Other items available through HMANA. Film Resources on Raptors, $2.00. Hawkwatch: A Guide to Hawkwatching. $9.50. Field I.D. Pamphlet for North American Raptors. $2.50. Field Guide for Hawks Seen in the North East, $1.50. A Beginner's Guide to Hawkwatching, $1.00. Books on Raptors for Young Readers. Order from Richard Morton, 604 Windsor Place, Moorestown, NJ 08057.

Coloring Album. Eagles, Falcons, and Owls of North America, a coloring album, $3.95. Raptor Education Foundation. P.O. Box 3161, Boulder, CO 80303. Also available from HMANA.

Kestrel Nest Box Plans. Kestrel Karetakers, 3549 Devon Drive, Falls Church, VA 22042. Tel: 702-533-2144. They will provide you free nest box plans and, if you wish, a nesting survey form.

Owl Mobile. 6 species with descriptive information. From Carolina Biological Supply (above). Item # 27-3382, "Owls in Flight."


  1. Owls, by James D. Wilson. 6-pages, color painting and silhouettes of 8 species, natural history data. Reprinted from the Missouri Conservationist by the Missouri Conservation Commission, Columbia, MO 65201.
  2. Raptors of Kansas from the Prairie Raptor Project. 8-pages, brown-line sketches, natural history data for 15 Kansas raptors. C/O Maure Weigel (below).
  3. Hawks in Kansas. The Kansas School Naturalist, Vol. 3, No.1. Out of Print, but photocopies are available from the Division of Biological Sciences, Emporia State University, Emporia, KS 66801. Charge for photocopying.
  4. Shadows in the Night. The Kansas School Naturalist, Vol. 17, No.4. Excellent issue on Kansas owls. (See above.)

Posters. My favorite raptor posters are produced by DEFENDERS, 1244 Nineteenth Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20036. Write for a listing of (all) their wildlife posters and current prices.

Wildlife Reference Center Catalog. Learning kits, films, video tapes, etc. Kansas Wildlife and Parks Dept., Wildlife Reference Center, RR 2, Box 54A, Pratt, KS 67124. Tel: 316-672-5911.

ZOOBOOKS. P.O. Box 85271, Suite 6, San Diego, CA 92138. $1.95 + $1.50 for postage/ handling. Subscription rates $14.95 for 10 issues. Tel: 800 334-8152. Call for a listing of raptor titles.


Kansas Department of Corrections. Billy Cox, Director. El Dorado Honor Camp, P.O. Box 529, El Dorado, KS 67042.

Prairie Raptor Project. Maure Weigel, Director. Route 1, Box 199, Tescott, KS 67474.

Raptor Reach. Steven D. Ford, Director. Department of Biology, Pittsburg State University, 330 Heckert/Wells, Pittsburg, KS 66762.

Raptor Rehabilitation and Propagation Project, Inc. Tyson Research Center, Box 193, Eureka, MO 63025. Telephone: 314-938-6193 or -6290.

Wichita Rehabilitation Society, Inc. Chris Bell, President. 6421 Beachy, Wichita, KS 67206.

Wildcare Rehabilitation Program. Christie Kennedy, Director. Mallot Hall, Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045.

For the chapter nearest you, write to Ron Klataske, Regional Vice-President; National Audubon Society, West Central Regional Office; 200 Southwind place, Manhattan, KS 66052.

KANSAS MUSEUMS (with raptors on display)

Kansas Wildlife and Parks Museum. Route 2, P.O. Box 54A, Pratt, 67124.

Kauffman Museum. Bethel College, North Newton, KS 67117.

Museum of Natural History. University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045.

PSU Zoology Museum. Department of Biology, Pittsburg State University, Pittsburg, KS 66762.

Richard Schmidt Natural History Museum. Division of Biological Sciences, Emporia State University, Emporia, KS 66801.

Sternberg Memorial Museum and Museum of the High Plains. Fort Hays State University, Hays, KS 67601.


Brit Spaugh Zoo. Jerry Tillery, Supt., Box 215, Great Bend, KS 67530.

Deanna Rose Zoo. Kevin Bolling, Dir., 13800 Switzer, Overland Park, KS 66221.

Dodge City Zoo. Gary Sims, Dir., P.O. Box 880, Dodge City, KS 67801.

Emporia Zoo. David Traylor, Dir., Box 928, Emporia, KS 66801.

Hutchinson Zoo. Harry Gregory, Dir., P.O. Box 1567, Hutchinson, KS 67504.

Lee Richardson Zoo. Don Baffa, Dir., P.O . Box 499, Garden City, KS 67846.

Ralph Mitchell Zoo. Ned Stichman, Asst. Park Supt., Route #4, Riverside Park, Independence, KS 67301.

Sedgwick County Zoo. Ron Blakely, Dir., 5555 Zoo Blvd., Wichita, KS 67212.

Sunset Zoo. Steve Matthews, Dir., 11th & Poyntz, Manhattan, KS 66502.


(The) Hawk Migration Association of North America. C/O Joyce Holt, Membership Secretary, 3094 Forest Acre Trail, Salem, VA 24153. Individual membership $10.00, Students $5.00.

Kansas Biological Survey. Dr. Ed Martinko, Director. West Campus, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045.

Kansas Ornithological Society. Dr. Elmer Finck, President. Dept. of Biology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506.

Kansas Wildlife and Parks. Marvin Schwilling, Project Leader Nongame and Endangered Wildlife, 1830 Merchant St., Emporia, KS 66801. Tel:

The Peregrine Fund, Inc., 159 Sapsucker Woods Rd., Ithaca, NY 14850. or, 5666 West Flying Hawk Lane, Boise, ID 83709.

The Raptor Research Foundation. Jim Fitzpatrick, Treasurer. Carpenter Nature Center, 12805 St. Croix Trail, Hastings, MN 55033. Regular membership $15.00, Students $13.00.


Since we are still mushing along in our economic quagmire, it was necessary to restrict Volume 34 to three issues - this last issue we dubbed Number 3 & 4. It appears that there may be more solid footing ahead, however, and that we will receive funding for some issues, perhaps all, of Volume 35. Your support in the past has been appreciated; it is needed in the future. If you care to do so, drop us a line. Thank you.  The Editor


For the past 20 years, a delightful little paperback book, The Game of Science by Garvin McCain and Erwin M. Segal, has been informing and entertaining students while it introduces them to the nature of scientific exploration. The one priority of a science course is to teach students what science is. Here is something that will help you do that.

"There is nothing comparable in the field that performs the task of introducing the student to the inner workings of science and dispels the most common prejudices and misapprehensions." Leo Gerulaitis, Department of History, Oakland University.

"I would describe this book as a light-hearted description of what science is and what it 'ain't'.. . a book written especially for the person who believes that science is boring and dull, that all scientists wear lab coats and think deep, heavy thoughts, or that science is something that does not affect their daily life." Robert B. Stewart, Jr., Department of Psychology, Oakland University.

If your teaching goals include acquainting students with the logic of scientific methodology, the development of science, and the importance of its methods and applications to the modern world, chances are there is a place in your course for The Game of Science, 5th edition.

Brooks/Cole Publishing Co., 511 Forest Lodge Road, Pacific Grove, California 93950-5098, phone (408) 373-0728.

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