Skip to content
Toggle Left Side Navigation

Unless otherwise noted, information contained in each edition of the Kansas School Naturalist reflects the knowledge of the subject as of the original date of publication.

Vol. 31, No. 1 - October 1984 - 30 YearsCover Photo: The three editors are shown with their 30 years of issues of the Kansas School
Naturalist. Dr. Breukelman is in the center, flanked by Dr. Boles on his right and Dr. Clarke on his left.

Volume 31, Number 1 -
October 1984

30 Years




Editor: Robert F. Clarke

Editorial Committee: Tom Eddy, Gilbert A. Leisman, Gaylen Neufeld, John Parrish, John Ransom

Online edition formatted by: Terri Weast

The Kansas School Naturalist is sent upon request, free of charge, to Kansas teachers, school board members and administrators, librarians, conservationists, youth leaders, and other adults interested in nature education. Back numbers are sent free as long as supply lasts. Send requests to The Kansas School Naturalist, Division of Biological Sciences, Emporia State University, Emporia, Kansas, 66801.

The Kansas School Naturalist is published in October, December, February, and April of each year by Emporia State University, 1200 Commercial Street, Kansas 66801. Second-class postage at Emporia,

"Statement required the Act of August 12, 1970, Section 3685, Title 34, United States Code, showing Ownership, Management, and Circulation." The Kansas School Naturalist is published in October, December, February, and April. Editorial Office and Publication Office at 1200 Commercial Street, Emporia, Kansas 66801. The Naturalist is edited and published by Emporia State University, Kansas. Editor, Robert F. Clarke, Division of Biological Sciences.

30 Years

by Robert F. Clarke

The Kansas School Naturalist began its life 30 years ago through the efforts and initiative of Dr. John Breukelman. It seems a long time ago when he asked me to illustrate the first issue of the fledgling journal. The years since its inception have witnessed a series of 120 issues that have been supplied to the
citizens of Kansas and a substantial number of "outsiders" at no charge. Responses received have indicated that the original concept had a foundation in need, as stated in Volume 1, No.1:

It is the hope of the editorial committee that The Kansas School Naturalist may be of special help to teachers in at least three ways. First, we that the information provided in the articles, tables, and illustrations may be useful in teaching about Kansas and its natural interests. Second, we hope teachers will find methods, devices, activities, and tricks-of-the-trade to help them find something for the students to do, as well as something to study about. And third, we hope that the magazine may serve as a clearing house for both information and activities, so that teachers may use its columns to help each other.

An issue of this sort must be dedicated to those persons most important to the continued production and quality of the Naturalist. To the past two editor, Drs. John Breukelman and Robert Boles, therefore, this 30-year commemorative issue is dedicated. These two handled the editorship as a labor of love; not as a task - and the "proof is in the pudding," as is said.

Plans for the Naturalist series were drawn up at a long breakfast meeting attended by Dr. Breukelman, President John E. King, and Dr. E. Laurence Palmer, during the summer of 1954. Dr. Palmer, of Cornell University, was the long-time editor of the Cornell Rural School Leaflet, which became the Cornell Science Leaflet, the concept of which was used as a model for the Kansas School Naturalist.

Dr. Boles took over the reins in 1968 and for the next 12 years guided the Naturalist on a steady course, writing and illustrating many of the issues. When Dr. Boles retired from the university in 1980, I inherited the editorship.

The present issue intends to present a retrospective scan of the entire series, and will give the reader an idea of the topics covered. Some of the titles, particularly those of the most recent years, are still available and will be sent upon request. It will be necessary to write first in order to ascertain availability. Those that are out of print will be photocopied for one dollar per copy.

Vol. 1, No. 1 - Oct. 1954 - Window Nature Study

VOLUME 1 (1954-1955)

No. 1 WINDOW NATURE STUDY Oct. 1954 - The content explained ecological concepts that could be explained around a school building by examining "ordinary" things: the window and what comes through it, erosion, frost patterns, birds, aquaria and terraria.

No. 2 WILDLIFE IN WINTER Dec. 1954 - What winter is like in Kansas, how animals survive the winter, weeds above the snow, snow as cover, winter fur bearers, winter birds, and snow clues make up this issue.

No. 3 CHILDREN'S BOOKS FOR NATURE STUDY Feb. 1955 - Somewhat dated now, this is an annotated list of books useful for children to understand nature.

No. 4 LET'S GO OUTDOORS April 1955 - What there is to see "outdoors" in Kansas, plus wild foods, lakes and parks in Kansas.


VOLUME 2 (1955-1956)

No. 1 FALL WILDFLOWERS Oct. 1955 - A pictured group of typical wildflowers, with "playing with wildflowers," "seed travelers," etc.

No. 2 SNOW Dec. 1955 - A description of what snow is, snowflakes, tracks in the snow, and what you can do
with snow.

No. 3 SPRING WILDFLOWERS Feb. 1956 - Like the Fall Wildflowers, but this is a description of the spring flora.

No. 4 TURTLES IN KANSAS Apr. 1956 - Descriptions, keys, illustrations, and natural history of all of the turtle species that occur in Kansas.


VOLUME 3 (1956-1957)

No. 1 HAWKS IN KANSAS Oct. 1956 - Descriptions and accounts of the various hawks, along with a plea for conservation of these raptors.

No. 2 CHILDREN'S BOOKS FOR NATURE STUDY Dec 1956 - More annotated lists of good books, arranged by content into natural areas.

No. 3 LIFE IN A POND Feb. 1957 - Describes the pond ecosystem, its organization, members, and energy flow.

No. 4 SPIDERS Apr. 1957 - A general account, with specific forms illustrated and described, of the common
Kansas spiders.


Vol. 3, No. 2 - Children's Books for Nature Study

VOLUME 4 (1957-1958)

No. 1 ALONG THE ROADSIDE Oct. 1957 - Things to see and do in roadside parks, ditches, weed patches, and the like.

No.2 AN OUTLINE FOR CONSERVATION TEACHING IN KANSAS Dec. 1957 - For elementary grades, this was made up by a group of elementary teachers attending a summer conservation workshop.

No. 3 TREES Feb. 1958 - An illustrated account of the common trees of Kansas.

No. 4 SUMMER WILD FLOWERS Apr. 1958 - As in preceding issues, this illustrated booklet details with a specific nora of the year.


VOLUME 5 (1958-1959)

No. 1 WATERSHEDS IN KANSAS Oct. 1958 - Describes what a watershed is and the steps to develop these in Kansas. A map shows where development has occurred.

No. 2 LET'S BUILD EQUIPMENT Dec. 1958 - A description of science devices that can be constructed easily and used in elementary grades.

No. 3 POISONOUS SNAKES IN KANSAS Feb. 1959 - An illustrated description of all of the poisonous snakes that may occur in Kansas, along with generalizations about nonpoisonous snakes. This is the only issue
produced in color.

No. 4 LIFE IN A STREAM Apr. 1959 - What occurs in a stream and how to study it.


Vol. 5, No. 4 - Life in a Stream


VOLUME 6 (1959-1960)

No. 1 FIELD TRIPS Oct. 1959 - The "Do-s and Don't·s" of field tripping, either as a couple or as a class. Also included is a list of necessary items.

No. 2 CONSERVATION ARITHMETIC Dec. 1959 - A series of arithmetic problems arranged by categories; water, precipitation, land and people, erosion, grass, forests, etc.

No. 3 THE SPARROW FAMILY Feb. 1960 - An illustrated bird guide for the sparrows. Includes, too, migration routes, plumage changes, distribution, behavior, and more.

No. 4 MEASURES AND WEIGHTS Apr. 1960 - Explains systems of measurements and gives sizes of such items as wire, shot, nails, game areas, and the like.


Vol. 6, No. 1 - Field Trips


VOLUME 7 (1960-1961)

No. 1 LET'S EXPERIMENT Nov. 1960 - A group of exciting experiments that students can perform, using common items for equipment.

No. 2 RECENT SCIENCE BOOKS FOR CHILDREN Jan. 1961 - Categorized lists of recent books, primarily intended for elementary levels.

No. 3 THE GREATEST SHOW ON EARTH Mar. 1961 - No, not the circus! A booklet on how to "bird watch," with hints on how to locate birds and a Kansas "finding chart."

No. 4 THE F.B. AND RENA G. ROSS NATURAL HISTORY RESERVATION May 1961 - A description of the KSTC Reservation in Lyon County, with biological uses pictured and described.


Vol. 8, No. 2 - The Cacti of Kansas


VOLUME 8 (1961-1962)

No. 1 RHYTHMS IN NATURE Nov. 1961 - Physical and biological rhythms are described, such as temperature, humidity, and animal vocalizations.

No. 2 THE CACTI OF KANSAS Jan. 1962 - An illustrated guide to eight cacti that may be found in the state, along with general information.

No. 3 THE FORMATION OF THE SOIL Mar. 1962 - Description of the soil, its makeup and uses.

No.4 LET'S BUILD EQUIPMENT May 1962 - How to make all sorts of useful things for studying nature.


VOLUME 9 (1962-1963)

No. 1 THE TERNS OF KANSAS Nov. 1962 - Descriptions of these graceful birds includes nesting and other habits.

No. 2 KANSAS NATURAL HISTORY IN 1863 Jan. 1963 - What it was like in Kansas one hundred years ago. Maps and old photos are included.

No. 3 ATTRACTING WILDLIFE FOR OBSERVATION Mar. 1963 - How to get mammals, birds, and other creatures closer for study.

No. 4 THE WATER TABLE May 1963 - What and where water is - and why it is important to know about it.


Vol. 10, No. 3 - The Geology of Kansas


VOLUME 10 (1963-1964)

No. 1 MICROCLIMATE Oct. 1963 - The "climate near the ground" and how it is measured, as well as the importance of understanding how creatures are affected by it.

No. 2 INSECTS Dec. 1963 - Life histories, how to collect and study, and selected groups of Kansas insects are described.

No. 3 THE GEOLOGY OF KANSAS Feb. 1964 - A description of the rocks which underlie and outcrop in Kansas. How to understand what you see in rocks.

No. 4 CAMPING IN KANSAS Apr. 1964 - What to take and where to go. A map shows important camping spots.


VOLUME 11 (1964-1965)

No. 1 ECOLOGY Oct. 1964 - Describes general aspects of the study of interdependence, including effects of

No. 2 UNWANTED PARTNERS Dec. 1964 - A description of parasites and their histories.

No. 3 WHAT ISCONSERVATlON? Feb, 1965 - The result of the Conservation Workshop, this issue describes what conservation is and how to approach its teaching at the elementary level.

No. 4 LIZARDS IN KANSAS Apr. 1965 - Illustrated descriptions and relevant data on the 14 naturally occurring species and one introduced form.


Vol. 11, No. 4 - Lizards in Kansas


VOLUME 12 (1965-1966)

No. 1 DINOSAURS Oct. 1965 - Written by two eighth grade students, reptiles of the Mesozoic Era are described.

No. 2 YOUR SCIENCE PROJECT Dec. 1965 - How to prepare and present a project for a Science Fair.

No. 3 WHAT GOOD ARE INSECTS Feb. 1966 - Surprising descriptions of useful insects.

No. 4 LET'S EXPERIMENT Mar. 1966 - Lists experiments that can be performed with minimum equipment to demonstrate various principles.


VOLUME 13 (1966-1967)

No. 1 YOUR NATURE IQ Oct. 1966 - A series of silhouettes with questions pertaining to them on facing page. Answers are at end of booklet.

No. 2 TIME AND VELOCITY Dec. 1966 - Apsects of counting time and its effects on organisms.

No. 3 FERNS IN KANSAS Feb. 1967 - Although Kansas is not thought of as a place one would seek ferns, 15 are described, along with distribution maps.

No. 4 RECENT SCIENCE BOOKS FOR CHILDREN Apr. 1967 - This is the fourth in a series intended to provide titles of suitable elementary reading.


Vol. 13, No. 2 - Time and Velocity


VOLUME 14 (1967-1968)

No. 1 YOUR ECOLOGY IQ Oct. 1967 - A variety of organisms and concepts is presented, with questions that pertain to them.

No. 2 WINTER NATURE STUDY Dec. 1967 - Things to look at and do in the snow.

No. 3 DOOMED FOR EXTINCTION? Feb. 1968 - Animals that could become extinct if steps are not taken to prevent it.

No. 4 THE FIRST 14 YEARS Apr. 1968 - A review of the first years of the Naturalist under Dr. Breukelman; Dr. Boles begins.


Vol. 14, No. 4 - The First 14 Years


VOLUME 15 (1968-1969)

No. 1 ALL SMALL FISH AREN'T MINNOWS Oct. 1968 - Drawings and descriptions of a number of small fresh water fish.

No. 2 PLANTS OF THE HOLIDAY SEASONS Dec. 1968 - Types of plants and their uses in decoration at certain seasons.

No. 3 AMERICA THE BEAUTIFUL Feb. 1969 - Pollution of various sorts is described along with an appeal for caring.

No. 4 COMMON SPRING WEEDS June 1969 - What are those things growing in the yard in place of grass? This tells you.


Vol. 17, No. 4 - Shadows in the Night


VOLUME 16 (1969-1970)

No. 1 BEES Oct. 1969 - Bees, hives, honey - and how to raise them.

No. 2 WHAT BIOLOGISTS DO Dec. 1969 - The first of two booklets devoted to describing the duties of the biology faculty at KSTC.

No. 3 FUN WITH WINTER TWIGS Feb. 1970 - A key to winter twigs and identification photos of the whole trees.

No. 4 SALAMANDERS OF KANSAS AND VICINITY Apr. 1970 - Illustrated descriptions of these amphibians from Kansas and nearby.  


VOLUME 17 (1970-1971)

No. 1 MORE ABOUT BIOLOGISTS AND THEIR WORK Oct. 1970 - The second series about KSTC biologists.

No. 2 THE MOON Dec. 1970 - Phases, characteristics, and character in folklore.

No. 3 ALABASTER Feb. 1971 - The albino rattlesnake that was a pet for some 13 years.

No. 4 SHADOWS IN THE NIGHT Apr. 1971 - All about owls. with silhouettes of different kinds.


VOLUME 18 (1971-1972)

No. 1 NO LICENSE REQUIRED Oct. 1971 - A booklet on Kansas birdwatching with a list of Kansas birds.

No. 2 THERE'S A FUNGUS AMONG US Dec. 1971 - Toadstools and mushrooms are described.

No. 3 ENVIRONMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS Feb. 1972 - What to see and how to study pollution.

No. 4 FIELDS TRIPS FOR THE 70's Apr. 1972 - Shorter and longer field trips in Kansas.


Vol. 19, No. 1 - Mammal Silhouettes No. 1


VOLUME 19 (1972-1973)

No. 1 MAMMAL SILHOUETTES NO. 1 Oct. 1972 - Various mammals of the world are shown in silhouette and described.

No. 2 TIGER HUNTING IN KANSAS Dec. 1972 - A description of Tiger Beetles, with a key to Kansas species.

No. 3 SOME QUESTIONS ABOUT WILDLIFE Feb. 1973 - This is an illustrated quiz about wildlife.

No. 4 PESTICIDES AND THE ENVIRONMENT Apr. 1973 - A booklet about effects of pesticides, with specific facts on Kansas use and misuse.


Vol. 20, No. 4 - With These Two Hands


VOLUME 20 (1973-1974)

No. 1 A BIT OF KANSAS HISTORY Oct. 1973 - An issue devoted to the geology and natural history of Doniphan County.

No. 2 NATURE POETRY Dec. 1973 - Dr. John Breukelman has written some extremely expressive and feeling poetry.

No. 3 PROTECTIVE COLORATION Feb. 1974 - What is meant by "cryptic" , "mimicry", and other terms utilized to describe ways that animals are concealed.

No. 4 WITH THESE TWO HANDS Apr. 1974 - The story of Richard Schmidt, our taxidermist for two decades. A most remarkable man.


Vol. 21, No. 2 - Fences


VOLUME 21 (1974-1975)

No. 1 MAMMAL SILHOUETTES NO. 2 Oct. 1974 - A continuation of a previous issue. Shows silhouettes of world animals and has questions and discussion.

No. 2 FENCES Dec. 1974 - There are many types of fences in Kansas. They are described and discussed.

No. 3 WHOSE ENVIRONMENT? Feb. 1975 - At issue is "What is happening to my environment?", "What can I do?"

No. 4 FOSSILS IN KANSAS Apr. 1975 - This issue describes again the geology of Kansas and its fossils.


Vol. 22, No. 4 - Energy: An Unappreciated Commodity


VOLUME 22 (1975-1976)

No. 1 MAMMAL SILHOUETTES NO. 3 Oct. 1975 - A continuation of the mammals of the world in silhouette, with information.

No. 2 NATURE POETRY II Dec. 1975 - Dr . Breukelman again shows his talent with this group of poems.

No. 3 THE CARP Feb. 1976 - This is a manual stressing observation.

No. 4 ENERGY Apr. 1976 - As subtitled, this is an "unappreciated commodity." All about energy sources.


VOLUME 23 (1976-1977)

No. 1 YOU CAN BE INFORMED Oct. 1976 - An annotated list of papers and books that is a sequel to "Whose Environment?"

No. 2 AN ECOLOGICAL LOOK AT WEEDS Dec. 1976 - All about "weeds" - the problem and solutions.

No. 3 KEY TO SOME COMMON WOODY PLANTS Feb. 1977 - How to know some of the more common big bushes and trees.

No. 4 FRESHWATER ZOOPLANKTON Apr. 1977 - A description of the small animals found in ponds and streams.


VOLUME 24 (1977-1978)

No. 1 THE METRIC SYSTEM Oct. 1977 - An explanation of a system of measurement in use by most countries of the world, except USA.

No. 2 NATURE POETRY III Dec. 1977 - Again, Dr. Breukelman has delighted everyone with his rhymes.

No. 3 FRESHWATER BENTHOS Feb. 1978 - A description of those organisms that live on the bottom of aquatic systems.

No. 4 BIOLOGICAL BASEBALL Apr. 1978 - How to play the game, with suggested questions.


Vol. 25, No. 2 - Animals in the Classroom


VOLUME 25 (1978-1979)

No. 1 THE METRIC SYSTEM Oct. 1978 - Again, the metric system is described and gives ways in which it can be taught.

No. 2 ANIMALS IN THE CLASSROOM Dec. 1978 - How to get and maintain animals in your classroom.

No. 3 I DIDN'T KNOW THAT (FISHES) Feb. 1979 - Many odd, unusual facts about fishes.

No. 4 I DIDN'T KNOW THAT (INSECTS) Apr. 1979 - Same as above - about insects.


Vol. 28, No. 1 - Kansas Sunflowers 

VOLUME 26 (1979-1980)

No. 1 I DIDN'T KNOW THAT: BIRDS Oct. 1979 - Many odd, unknown bits of information about birds.

No. 2 MICROBIOLOGY LABORATORIES MADE EASY Dec. 1979 - All kinds of things that can be done to make the teaching of microbiology easier.

No. 3 SNAKES IN KANSAS Feb. 1980 - How to identify any snake in Kansas.

No. 4 I DIDN'T KNOW THAT: MAMMALS Apr. 1980 - Lots of what you wanted to know about mammals.


Vol. 27, No. 3 - Kansas Nongame & Endangered Wildlife


VOLUME 27 (1980-1981)

No. 1 I DIDN'T KNOW THAT: AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES Oct. 1980 - Many facts about these creatures that people believe - but are wrong; and many that are true.

No. 2 KEY TO WOODY PLANTS Dec. 1980 - Illustrated method of identification for common woody plants.

No. 3 KANSAS NONGAME & ENDANGERED WILDLIFE Feb. 1981 - A description of the Nongame program in
Kansas and what it is attempting to do.

No. 4 LET'S GO HIKING Apr. 1981 - Where to go and how to go hiking in Kansas - trails are illustrated.


Vol. 26, No. 1 I Didn't Know That: Birds

VOLUME 28 (1981-1982)

No. 1 KANSAS SUNFLOWERS Oct. 1981 - The various kind of sunflowers that exist in Kansas - some are forms that are usually not known as sunflowers.

No. 2 D.O.R. Dec. 1981 - D.O.R. means Dead on Road. Many animals are killed on roads in Kansas. Here is a message.

No. 3 ZOO BEHAVIOR Feb. 1982 - The purpose in visiting a zoo is explained - and a list of things to observe is included.

No. 4 UNDERSTANDING SOILS Apr. 1982 - What are soil types? How are they formed? What is in Kansas? Answers are here.


VOLUME 29 (1982-1983)

No. 1 I DIDN'T KNOW THAT: HUMANS Oct. 1982 - Odd items that you may not know about humans.

No. 2 GEOLOGY MUSEUM, ESU Dec. 1982 - A fine description of the displays in the excellent Geology Museum.

No. 3 MICROBIOLOGY RESEARCH MADE EASY Feb. 1983 - Many methods and sources for setting up experiments in Microbiology.

No. 4 BIRD WATCHING Apr. 1983 - A handy guide to attracting and watching birds in Kansas. Contains a check list of Kansas birds.


VOLUME 30 (1983-1984)

No. 1 KANSAS MICE Oct. 1983 - An illustrated account of the many mice that most Kansans do not know exist.

No. 2 COAL BALLS Dec. 1983 - This is an account of the peculiar fossilization of plants in "coal balls", with an explanation of the utilization of the information gained from a study of these fossils.

No. 3 FROGS AND TOADS IN KANSAS Feb. 1984 - An illustrated booklet of the species of frogs and toads that inhabit Kansas.

No. 4 CARNIVOROUS PLANTS Apr. 1984 - A description of the several USA species of plants that utilize animals as food.





SAFARI: The East African Diaries of a Wildlife Photographer, photographs by Gunter Ziesler and diary notes by Angelika Hofer, is a book as dazzling as the subject it describes (Publication date: September 7, 1984; Price: $24.95).

There are many books containing photographs of African wildlife, but few, if any, demonstrate the extraordinary results of so many hours, days and months spend waiting patiently to get the perfect shot. Patience, as consulting editor Nigel Sitwell says in the introduction, is probably the most important attribute of a wildlife photographer.



Insects make up well over three-quarters of all the world's living creatures. From arctic tundra to steamy jungles, from arid deserts to grassy meadows, they display a remarkable ability to exist in almost every conceivable habitat and an incredible diversity of fonns and behaviors.

Naturalist Anthony Wootton paints readers a colorful collage of this infinitely varied universe in INSECTS OF THE WORLD (Publication date: September 1984; Price: $17.95, hardbound). Using examples from all over the world, the author describes what insects are, how they originated and how they are distributed in myriad habitats.


Often associated with witches, poisonous appetites, and bad luck, spiders are, in fact, very seldom
dangerous to man.

The highly individual lifestyles of these frequently misrepresented creatures are vividly illustrated in SPIDERS OF THE WORLD, By Rod and Ken Preston-Mafham (Publication date: September 1984; Price: $17.95, hardbound).

The book offers an easy-to-read introduction to arachnoids (sic) around the world by discussing a number of representative spider families most likely to be noticed by the casual observer. Designed for amateur naturalists, the work gives a fascinating glimpse into structure, environment, and habits of these little known octopeds, with intriguing facts.

Lavishly illustrated with 64 color and 45 black and white photographs, as well as 29 line drawings, SPIDERS OF THE WORLD is certain to delight readers with the unusual beauty and variety of spiders on this planet.

The Kansas School Naturalist Department of Biology 
  College of Liberal Arts & Sciences 
Send questions / comments to
Kansas School Naturalist.
 Emporia State University