Does Media Influence Learning ?

This debate has gone on since the 1920's when educational technologies such as film, radio, television, and more recently computer media began making their way into the classroom. Richard Clark and Robert Kozma have helped to frame this debate starting in the 1980's. This debate provides some early background perspectives to the current questions about the use of technology in education. Does the use of technology make a difference in the classroom? Does the use of technology enhance learning? If so, is the difference great enough to justify the vast expense of technology?


The following articles make up the main papers involved in the Clark-Kozma Media and Methods Debate:


Clark, Richard E. (1983). Reconsidering Research on Learning from Media. Review of Educational Research 53(4), 445-459.


Kozma, Robert B. (1991). Learning with media. Review of Educational Research, 61(2), 179-211.

A major updating and reanalysis of media research from a cognitive perspective; written as a rebuttal to Clark (1983)


Kozma, Robert B. (1994). Will Media Influence Learning? Reframing the Debate. Educational Technology Research & Development 42(2), 7-19.


Clark, Richard E. (1994). Media will Never Influence Learning. Educational Technology Research & Development 42(2), 21-29.


Clark, Richard E. (1994). Media and Method. Educational Technology Research & Development 42(3), 7-10.

Note that the latter two issues of ETR&D--42(2) and 42(3)--are primarily devoted to the Media/Methods Debate. The articles in bold-face type have been provided for you under the Documents button in Blackboard. Read the Clark article first and then Kozma's article. Post your Points and Questions to the Discussion Board.