KSN - Vol 49, No 1 - Checklist of Kansas Crab SpidersVolume 49, Number 1 - May 2003

Checklist of Kansas Crab Spiders

by Hank Guarisco, Bruce Cutler, and Dan Jennings

ABOUT THIS ISSUE

ISSN: 0022-877X

Published by EMPORIA STATE UNIVERSITY

Prepared and Issued by The Department of Biological Sciences

Editor: JOHN RICHARD SCHROCK

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Cover photo: Misumena vatia [female].

authorsAUTHORS:
Hank Guarisco,
is a free-lance biologist and research associate of the Denver Museum of Nature & Science, 2001 Colorado Boulevard, Denver, CO 80205-5798 who has studied the natural history of Kansas spiders for the past 30 years. Mailing address: P.O. Box 3171, Lawrence, KS 66046

Bruce Cutler, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Haworth Hall, University of Kansas, 1200 Sunnyside Avenue, Lawrence, Kansas 66045-7534 is the director of the Microscopy and Electronic Imaging Lab and a courtesy professsor in EEB.

Daniel T. Jennings, USDA, Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station, 686 Government Road, Bradley, Maine 04411 is a recognized authority of crab spider taxonomy.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS:
We thank the Kansas Biological Survey (KBS) for providing research equipment, University of Kansas Entomology Program for providing laboratory space, and the K.U. Herbarium for the use of a microscope and camera. We thank LeeAnn Bennett, research assistant of the KBS for technical assistance in modifying the drawings, Debbie Baker of the KBS for producing the labels, and Henry S. Fitch of the University of Kansas for critically reviewing the manuscript. We also thank Steven Heydon of the University of California for identifying the parasitoid wasps.


CHECKLIST OF KANSAS CRAB SPIDERS

by Hank Guarisco, Bruce Cutler, and Dan Jennings

INTRODUCTION

Crab spiders are an interesting and diverse group of hunting spiders commonly encountered on vegetation and leaf litter in forests, prairies and even inside houses. They do not make webs to capture prey. This group has been divided into two families, the Thomisidae and the Philodromidae. Members of the Thomisidae can be easily recognized by their crab-like appearance. The first two pairs of legs are longer and thicker than the other legs, and are held to the side of the body in a crab-like manner. They have wide, somewhat flattened bodies and can scuttle forwards, backwards and sideways with equal rapidity when disturbed. These characteristics, along with cryptic color patterns, make them superb ambush hunters. The philodromids, however, have legs of about the same length and thickness (except for the genus Ebo) and possess specialized hairs on the underside of the legs (claw tufts and scopulae) which gives them a sure-footed grip as they actively hunt their prey. Spiders in the genera Thanatus and Tibellus (Fig.8) are sometimes not recognized as crab spiders since their legs are held in an almost "normal" position. Members of the genus Ebo are distinguished by their long second pairs of legs (Fig.7) (14),(22).

Worldwide there are approximately 2,500 species of crab spiders. Every year, more species are discovered. This year, two undescribed species have been discovered from western Kansas. The 54 species of crab spiders that live in the state range from tiny (a fraction of an inch) cryptic ones, such as Ozyptila, found under rocks and leaf litter, to the large (1+cm or 1/2 inch), brightly colored ambush hunters (Misumena vatia, Misumenoides formosipes, Misumenops sp.) found among flowers. Crab spiders are widespread and occur in most habitats, mainly because of a unique dispersal method called "ballooning." When certain weather conditions exist, many spiders climb to high places, such as tree tops, elevate their abdomens and release silk from their spinnerets. Figure 18 shows a twig bud mimic, Tmarus angulatus, in this position. As the wind continues to pull silk from the spinnerets, the silk strand lengthens and acts as a parasail. The spider then releases its hold on the tree branch, and is carried away by the wind. Sooner or later, the spider and its silk parasail land, and the process may be repeated. Ballooning enables some spiders to colonize distant locations, such as islands and mountain tops. General references and web sites concerning spider biology include:(l6),(19),(22),(26), (30), (35) and (36).

NATURAL HISTORY

Crab spiders often have unique coloration, shape, and patterns that render them inconspicuous to potential prey and predators. The white or yellow flower-ambush hunters mentioned above are superbly adapted for capturing pollinating insects, such as honey bees and bumble bees. Adult female Misumena vatia (cover photo) can even reversibly change color from white to yellow over several days to match the floral background. Although they usually have red patches on the abdomen, such patches are not detected by insects which can't see this part of the spectrum. However, the red patches may alarm potential vertebrate predators, such as birds (25). Crab spiders (Xysticus, Bassaniana, and Philodromus) found on tree limbs have cryptic patterns of brown and gray. One species, Tmarus angulatus, gives the impression one is looking at a twig bud instead of a spider!

The diet of crab spiders consists of a wide variety of insects, including worker ants. Although most spiders avoid worker ants because of their formidable defenses, on several occasions Synema, Tmarus, and Xysticus were observed feeding on ants. After the emergence of the 17-year cicada in June of 1998, a female Xysticus elegans was discovered feeding on one. Insect pests also fall victim to crab spiders. A Xysticus ferox female was captured while preying upon a bagworm {Thyridopteryx ephemeraeforrnis). A study of the feeding behavior of Philodromus rufus revealed hungry spiders fed on several prey items at once, and continued to capture more while still feeding. Predation rate increased with prey density. Spiders that were not so hungry actually killed more insects than hungry individuals because hungry spiders devoured the entire insect while satiated spiders consumed only part of the prey before attacking again (24). Although spiders are chiefly predators, significant nutrients can sometimes be obtained by consuming nectar. In Virginia, males of Misumenoides formosipes fed on the floral nectar of Queen Anne's lace (Daucus carota L), goldenrod (Solidago spp.), and chicory (Chicorium intybus L.) (32).

The courtship and mating behavior of crab spiders is a relatively simple affair. Mature males often seek out and guard females about to reach adulthood (3). Males apparently locate potential mates by detecting pheromones on the substrate or the silk dragline left by the female. If receptive, the female remains motionless while the male rapidly taps her with his first pairs of legs and pedipalps. A pair of Tibellus duttoni (back cover) captured at night in early June was placed on a potted plant in the laboratory. After approaching the female, the male nervously tapped her body while orienting one of his pedipalps below her abdomen. Between mating bouts, the male covered the female in a loose "bridal veil" by spinning silken threads over her legs and abdomen to the leaf. Once mating was completed the male beat a hasty retreat; the female easily broke the silk bonds and quickly ran away. Other species of crab spiders also exhibit this extraordinary mating behavior (22).

Like most spiders, crab spiders succumb to a host of predators and parasites. Female crab spiders often guard egg sacs which are placed in elaborately constructed nests of silk on foliage, under rocks, in litter and debris, and even in folded leaves. They remain in the nest for about one month, actively repelling potential enemies until the young disperse. This parental behavior improves the survivorship of their young (27),(28) and (29). Nevertheless, some parasites can successfully invade spider egg sacs. Two small pteromalid wasps {Arachnopteromalus dasys) emerged from an egg sac that was guarded by a female Tibellus duttoni, several days after it was collected. Spiders often consume other spiders. A male Xysticus discursans was found in the jaws of a male jumping spider {Phidippus clarus). Hunting wasps, including muddaubers (Sceliphron and Chalybion), organ-pipe muddaubers (Trypoxylon), and spider wasps (Pompilidae), often prey heavily upon crab spiders. Several muddauber cells discovered in a cement culvert on the Smoky Hill Air National Guard Range near Salina during July contained 36 Misumenops celer females. The female wasp paralyzes a spider by stinging it, and then carries it back to a mud nest which she has previously constructed. After the cell is fully provisioned with prey, the wasp lays an egg, and then closes the cell with mud. When the egg hatches, the wasp larva gains all of its nourishment by consuming the spiders in the cell.

Severe winters can also pose a significant threat to spiders. In northeastern Kansas, one-third of a Philodromus vulgaris population succumbed to low temperatures during one cold winter. Most crab spiders pass the colder months as juveniles in sheltered situations in leaf litter, under rocks and tree bark, and inside houses. Their presence inside homes is usually not a cause for concern since they do not establish populations in houses and they seldom bite unless squeezed or mishandled. Their bites are not considered dangerous to the average person, except for individuals who may have an allergic reaction to the venom.

 Philodromus cespitum female  Philodromus marginellus female
Philodromus cespitum female
Philodromus marginellus female

Key to the Crab Spiders of Kansas

Although identifying spiders to species is difficult and requires microscopic examination of genitalic characters, the reader can become familiar with the 12 genera of crab spiders found in Kansas by studying the following key and associated figures and photos. Spiders should be examined with a 10X hand lens or a dissecting microscope to find the morphological features mentioned in the key. A few genera, such as Misumenoides, Synema, Tmarus, and Ebo can be recognized on sight by their color and shape. This Key is taken from (14) and (33). The associated drawings were modified from (14). All photos taken by the senior author.

 

Key to the Families of Crab Spiders
1a. Legs I and II much longer and thicker than legs III an IV, legs without claw or tufts or scopulae (Figure 1)  Thomisidae
(ambusing crab spiders)
lb. Legs I and II (except for Ebo) similar in length and thickness to legs III and IV, legs usually have claw tufts and scopulae (Figure 2) Philodromidae
(running crab spiders) 

 

 Figure 1  Figure 2
Figure 1: Leg of Xysticus which lacks claw tufts and scopula.
Figure 2: Claw tuft and scopula on leg of Philodromus.

 

Key to the Genera of Philodromidae
1a. Posterior Median Eyes (PME) distinctly closer to posterior lateral eyes (PLE) than to each other (Fig. 3 & 4)

(2)

1b. PME not distinctly closer to PLE than to each other (Fig. 5 & 6)

(3)

2a. Leg II about twice as long as leg I (Fig. 7), AME distinctly larger than ALE (Fig. 3)
Ebo
5 KS species
2b. Leg II distinctly less than twice as long as leg I, AME not distinctly larger than ALE (Fig. 4)

Philodromus
13 KS species

3a. Abdomen elongate (about 2 72 times longer than wide), carapace and abdomen have dark middle stripe, PME distinctly closer to each other than to PLE (Fig. 6 & 8)

Tibellus
3 KS species

3b. Abdomen oval (about 1 72 times longer than wide), carapace and abdomen lack dark median stripe, PE almost uniformly spaced (Fig. 5)

Thanatus 3 KS species

 

 

 

Figure 3
Figure 3. Ebo, view of eyes.
 Figure 4
Figure 4. Philodromus, view of eyes.
   
Figure 5
Figure 5. Thanatus, top view of eyes.

Figure 6
 Figure 6. Tibellus, top view of eyes.
   
Figure 7
Figure 7. Ebo, top view .
Figure 8
Figure 8.
Tibellus, top view. 
   

Figure 9

Figure 9. Tmarus angulatus, side view.

 
   

Figure 10

Figure 10. Misumenoides formosipes, front view.

Figure 11 
Figure 11. Xysticus elegans, front view.
   

 
   
 
   
 

 

 

Key to the Genera of Thomisidae
1a. Front of carapace strongly protruding, abdomen truncate with dorsal tubercle at posterior end (Fig. 9)

Tmarus
1 KS species: angulatus

1b. Front of carapace not strongly protruding, abdomen not truncated and lacking dorsal tubercle

(2)

2a. Anterior lateral eyes (ale) about the same size as anterior median eyes (ame) (Fig. 10)
(3)
2b. Anterior lateral eyes larger than anterior median eyes (Fig. 11)
(4)
3a. Front of carapace with white transverse ridge (Fig. 10)
Misumenoides
1 KS species: formosipes
3b. Front of carapace lacks white transverse ridge

Misumena
1 KS species: vatia

4a. Carapace about as high at level of posterior eyes as at junction of leg II with body (Fig. 12)

Bassaiana
1 KS species: versicolor

4b. Carapace lower at level of posterior eyes than at junction of leg II with body (Fig. 13)

(5)

5a. Carapace not noticeably convex and shiny

(6)

5b. Carapace noticeably convex and shiny (Fig. 14)

Synema
1 KS species: parvulum

6a. Lateral eyes on large confluent tubercles (Fig. 15) No spines on prolateral surface of metatarsus I

Misumenops
7
KS species

6b. Lateral eyes on small discrete tubercles (Fig. 13) Metatarsus I with one or more prolateral spines.

(7)

7a. Femur I swollen at middle, tibia I with two pairs of ventral spines (Fig. 16).

Ozyptila
3 KS species

7b. Femur I not swollen at middle, tibia I with more than two pairs of ventral spines (Fig. 17)

Xysticus
15 KS species

 

Figure 14
Figure 14. Synema parvulum, female.
 Figure 18
Figure 18. Tmarus angulatus, ballooning.
 Philodromus marxi, male.
Philodromus marxi, male.
 Philodromus pratariae, female.
Philodromus pratariae, female.
Philodromus vulgaris , immature.
Philodromus vulgaris , immature.
Thanatus formicinus, immature.
Thanatus formicinus, immature.
 Thanatus vularis, female

Thanatus vularis
, female
Tibellus duttoni, female.

 Tibellus duttoni, female.
Tibellus oblongus, female guarding egg sac.

Tibellus oblongus, female guarding egg sac.
 Bassaniana versicolor, male.

Bassaniana versicolor, male.
 Misumenoides formosipes, female.

Misumenoides formosipes, female.
 Misumenoides formosipes, male.

Misumenoides formosipes, male.

KANSAS CRAB SPIDERS (PHILODROMIDAE & THOMISIDAE)

The following lists are based upon specimens examined by one or more of the authors, and Kansas records in the latest taxonomic revisions. Because of recent advances in spider taxonomy, some records in the older literature are unreliable and are not included. The currently recognized scientific name of each species is sometimes followed by one or more outdated names used in the older literature (31). More field work is needed to determine species distributions within Kansas. Therefore, the counties of known occurrence do not accurately reflect a species range. Habitat information concerning Kansas specimens are included when available.

Although Philodromus aureolus Olivier was reported from Meade county (18), it is an old world species and therefore not included in the list (31). Spiders formerly identified as Philodromus pernix Blackwall and Xysticns bicuspis Keyserling in Kansas are actually Philodromus vulgaris (Hentz) and Xysticus texanus Banks, respectively (17), (23). Since adult specimens are usually needed to accurately identify spiders, literature records based upon juvenile individuals, such as Philodromus infuscatus Keyserling (18), are not included.

PHILODROMIDAE
  1. Ebon.sp.: BARTON
  2. Ebo evansae Sauer & Platnick 1972: THOMAS / pitfall (34)
  3. Ebo latithorax Keyserling 1884: DOUGLAS / under debris by red cedar, woods/meadow edge (14, 34)
  4. Ebopepinensis Gertsch 1933: SUMNER (14, 34)
  5. Ebopunctatus Sauer & Platnick 1972: KINGMAN (34)
  6. Philodromus n. sp.? (nr. califomicus Keyserling): GEARY
  7. Philodromus sp. (nr. cespitum (Walckenaer)): MARION
  8. Philodromus cespitum (Walckenaer) 1802: DOUGLAS, ELLIS, ELLSWORTH, MORRIS, ROOKS, RUSSELL, SHAWNEE, TREGO, WABAUNSEE / sweep old field & woods, on red cedar & black walnut (13, 14)
  9. Philodromus histrio (Latreille) 1819 [=Philodromus virescensThoKtt}: MEADE, MORTON (11, 14, 18)
  10. Philodromus imbecillus Keyserling 1880: CHEYENNE, RILEY (8, 14)
  11. Philodromus keyserlingi Marx 1890 {^Philodromus washita Banks]: DOUGLAS, ELLSWORTH, MEADE, MITCHELL, OTTAWA, RILEY / on red cedar & oak, on eaves of house (13, 14)
  12. Philodromus marginellus Banks 1901: BUTLER, ELLSWORTH, McPHERSON, MONTGOMERY, RUSSELL, SCOTT/on red cedar (13, 14)
  13. Philodromus marxi Keyserling 1884: DOUGLAS, JEFFERSON, LEAVENWORTH, MONTGOMERY, OSAGE, RILEY, SHAWNEE / understory vegetation in mesic woods, on house, on fence (8, 14, 17)
  14. Philodromus minutus Banks 1892: DOUGLAS / mesic woods (8, 14)
  15. Philodromus pkcidus Banks 1892: DOUGLAS, JEFFERSON, MONTGOMERY, OSAGE, SCOTT / shrubs & understory vegetation in woods, on tall grass & red cedar (8, 14)
  16. Philodromuspratariae (Scheffer) 1904: BARBER, DOUGLAS, JEFFERSON, MARION, NORTON, ROOKS / call grass prairie (9, 17)
  17. Philodromus rufus Walckenaer 1826: CRAWFORD, DOUGLAS, JEFFERSON, SHAWNEE / on red cedar (5, 6, 7, 8, 14)
  18. Philodromus vulgaris (Hentz) 1847: CHAUTAUQUA, DOUGLAS, ELLIS, ELLSWORTH, GEARY, JEFFERSON, LYON, MARION, McPHERSON, MORRIS, NEOSHO, OSAGE, RILEY, ROOKS, SALINE, SCOTT, WABAUNSEE / under loose tree bark, on red cedar, american elm, Shagbark hickory and dogbane, in houses (4, 14, 17, 23)
  19. Thanatus formicinus (Clerck)1757: DOUGLAS, JEFFERSON, LYON / pitfall in old field, on window screen (14, 15, 17)
  20. Thanatus rubicellus Mello-Leitao 1929: CHAUTAUQUA, DOUGLAS, JEFFERSON, JOHNSON, LYON / pitfall in old field, sweep grass, under rock in field, in house (14, 15)
  21. Thanatus vulgaris Simon 1870: DOUGLAS / foreign introduction, in cricket colonies (14, 15)
  22. Tibellus duttoni (Hentz)1847: BARBER, BROWN, BUTLER, CHEYENNE, DOUGLAS, GEARY, GOVE, JEFFERSON, JOHNSON, LOGAN, LYON, MARION, MEADE, MONTGOMERY, NORTON, OSAGE, RENO, RILEY, RUSSELL, SALINE, SHERMAN, TREGO, WABAUNSEE / on grass stalks in tall and short grass prairie, mixed meadow & old field (14)
  23. Tibellus asiaticus Kulczynski 1908 [=Tibellusgertschi Chamberlin & Ivie]: SHERMAN (14)
  24. Tibellus oblongw (Walckenaer)1802: ATCHISON, BROWN, CHEYENNE, DOUGLAS, JEFFERSON, JEWELL, MORTON, SCOTT, SHERMAN, WYANDOTTE / on grass in tall and short grass prairie, mixed meadow & old field (14, 17)

    THOMISIDAE
  25. Bassaniana versicolor (Keyserling 1880) [=Coriarachne verskolor Keyserling] [nomen dubium: Coriarachne lenta (Walckenaer)]: CHEROKEE, DOUGLAS, NEOSHO / under loose tree bark, bare soil, on houses (1,14, 17)
  26. Misumena vatia (Clerck 1757): DOUGLAS / in flowers in prairies & old fields (14, 17)
  27. Misumenoidesformosipes (Walckenaer 1837): ANDERSON, ATCHISON, BROWN, CHEROKEE, CRAWFORD, DOUGLAS, JEFFERSON, LYON, MIAMI, MONTGOMERY, MORRIS, OSAGE, RENO, ROOKS, SHAWNEE, WOODSON / in flowers in prairies & old fields (14, 17, 20)
  28. Misumenops sp.(celer group): MONTGOMERY
  29. Misumenops asperatus (Hentz 1847): BUTLER, COFFEY, COWLEY, DOUGLAS, JEFFERSON, RILEY RUSSELL / understory vegetation in woods, walnut tree, red cedar (Junipems virginiana L), buckthorn (Rhamnus lanceolata Pursh), in flowers of Phlox & New Jersey tea {Ceanothus ovatus Desf.), sweep old fields and meadows (14, 17, 20)
  30. Misumenops carktonicus Dondale & Redner 1976: DOUGLAS, GOVE, WABAUNSEE / fields, meadows, short grass prairie, on coralberry (Symphoricarpos orbiculatus Moench) & dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum L.) (12, 14)
  31. Misumenops celer (Hentz 1847) [=Misumenops delphinus (Walckenaer)]: BARBER, BARTON, BROWN, CLARK, DONIPHAN, DOUGLAS, GOVE, HODGEMAN, JEFFERSON, LOGAN, MARION, MEADE, MORTON, RENO, RILEY, ROOKS, RUSSELL, SALINE, SCOTT, WABAUNSEE / understory vegetation in woods, on grasses & forbs in mixed meadows, old fields, prairies (14, 20)
  32. Misumenops dubius (Keyserling 1890): MEADE (17), RILEY (20)
  33. Misumenops lepidus (Thorell 1877): SHERMAN (20)
  34. Misumenops oblongw (Keyserling 1880): CHEROKEE, DOUGLAS, JEWELL, OSAGE / understory vegetation in woods (14, 17)
  35. Ozyptila americana Banks 1895: RILEY, WABAUNSEE / understory vegetation in woods (10)
  36. Ozyptila modesta (Scheffer 1904): RILEY, TREGO / under rock (10)
  37. Ozyptila monroensis Keyserling 1884: DOUGLAS, JEFFERSON, LYON / mixed meadow, in litter woods & edge of woods, on building (10, 17)
  38. Synemaparvulum (Hentz 1847) [=Synema varians (Walckenaer)]: COFFEY, DOUGLAS, ELK, FRANKLIN, LABETTE, RILEY, SHAWNEE / on trees & shrubs, woods, woods edge (14, 17, 20)
  39. Tmarus angulatus (Walckenaer 1837): ANDERSON, COFFEY, ELK, DOUGLAS, JEFFERSON / twig bud mimic, on trees & shrubs in woods, porch ceiling (14, 17, 20)
  40. Xysticus n.sp. (nr. posti Sauer): CHEYENNE
  41. Xysticus auctificus Keyserling \8&0[=Xysticus lemniscatus Walckenaer]: DOUGLAS, JEFFERSON (14, 17, 21)
  42. Xysticus coloradensis Bryant 1930: SEWARD / on a composite, Prionopsis ciliata (Nutt.) (14, 21)
  43. Xysticus discursans Keyserling 1880: DOUGLAS, JEFFERSON / on limestone rock face, pitfall in old field (14, 21)
  44. Xysticus elegans Keyserling 1880: DOUGLAS, JEFFERSON / pitfall in woods & edge of woods, on forbs in woods (14, 17)
  45. Xysticus ferox (Hentz 1847) [=Xysticus tmnsversatus (Walckenaer) 1: DOUGLAS, HARPER, JEFFERSON, LYON, MEADE, RENO, SCOTT, WOODSON / pitfall in woods & old field, on vines & shrubs, on sidewalk, in lab (14, 17, 21)
  46. Xysticus fratemus Banks 1895: DOUGLAS, JEFFERSON (14, 21)
  47. Xysticus funestus Keyserling 1880 [=Xysticus tumefactus Walckenaer]: CRAWFORD, DOUGLAS, HARPER, JEFFERSON, LABETTE, LYON, MEADE, NEOSHO, ROOKS / pitfall in woods, sweep old field, in house, in pet store (14, 17, 21)
  48. Xysticus gidosus Keyserling 1880: DOUGLAS, JEFFERSON, LOGAN, LYON, MEADE, RILEY / pitfall in old field, on building (14, 21)
  49. Xysticus luctans (C.L. Koch 1845): JEFFERSON / sweep tall grass prairie (14, 21)
  50. Xysticus nigromaculatus Keyserling 1884: Kansas (14, 21)
  51. Xysticus pellax O.P.-Cambridge 1894: CHAUTAUQUA, JEFFERSON, LYON / pitfall in woods & old fields, on ground (14, 17)
  52. Xysticus robinsoni Gertsch 1953: LOGAN /pitfall short grass prairie (2, 21)
  53. Xysticus texanus Banks 1904: CHEROKEE, DOUGLAS, JEFFERSON, LOGAN, LYON, MEADE, MITCHELL, MONTGOMERY, MORTON, WABAUNSEE / short grass prairie, pitfall in old field, on bare ground, in street, on building, in house (17, 18, 21)
  54. Xysticus triguttatus Keyserling 1880: DOUGLAS, JEFFERSON, LYON, RILEY, WABAUNSEE / sweep wetland grass & roadside vegetation, pitfall in old field, tall grass prairie (14, 17)
 Misumenopes sp. (celer group), female.

Misumenopes sp. (celer group), female.
 Misumenopes celer, male.

Misumenopes celer, male.
   
 Misumenopes oblongus, male.

Misumenopes oblongus, male
 Xysticus auctificus, female.

Xysticus auctificus, female.
   
Xysticus elegans, male.

Xysticus elegans, male.
 Xysticus elegans, female.

Xysticus elegans, female.
   
Xysticus ferox, male.

Xysticus ferox, male.
Xysticus ferox, female.

Xysticus ferox, female.
   
Xysticus fraternus, male.

Xysticus fraternus, male.
Xysticus fraternus, female.

Xysticus fraternus, female.
   
Xysticus texanus, male.

Xysticus texanus, male.
 Xysticus triguttatus, female.

Xysticus triguttatus, female.

 

 

REFERENCES

  1. Bowling, T.A. & R.J. Sauer. 1975. A taxonomic revision of the crab spider genus Coriarachne (Araneida, Thomisidae) for North America north of Mexico. Jour. Arachnol. 2(3): 183-193.
  2. Cokendolpher, J.C. & N.V. Horner. 1980. The female of Xysticus robinsoni (Araneae: Thomisidae). Southwestern Naturalist 25:109-111.
  3. Dodson, G.N. & M.W. Beck. 1993. Pre-copulatory guarding of penultimate females by male crab spiders, Misumenoides formosipes. Animal Behaviour 46:951-959.
  4. Dondale, CD. 1961. Revision of the aureolus group of the genus Phibdromus (Araneae:Thomisidae) in North America. Canadian Entomol. 93:199-222.
  5. Dondale, CD. 1964. Sexual behavior and its application to a species problem in the spider genus Phibdromus (Araneae: Thomisidae). Canadian Jour. Zool. 42:817-827.
  6. Dondale, CD. 1967. Sexual behavior and the classification of the Phibdromus nifus complex in North America (Araneida: Thomisidae). Canadian Jour. Zool. 45:453-459.
  7. Dondale, CD. 1972. Laboratory breeding between European and North American populations of the spider Pbilodromus rufus Walckenaer (Araneida: Thomisidae). Bull. British Arachnol. Soc. 2(4):49-52.
  8. Dondale, CD. & J.H. Redner. 1968. The imbecillus and rufus groups of the spider genus Phibdromus in North America (Araneida: Thomisidae). Mems. Entomol. Soc. Canada: 55:1-78.
  9. Dondale, CD. & J.H. Redner. 1969. The infuscatus and dispar groups of the spider genus Phibdromus in north and central America and the West Indies (Araneida: Thomisidae). Canadian Entomol. 101:921-954.
  10. Dondale, CD. & J.H. Redner. 1975. The genus Ozyptila in North America (Araneida, Thomisidae). Jour. Arachnol. 2(3): 129-181.
  11. Dondale, CD. & J.H. Redner. 1975. The fuscomarginatus and histrio groups of the spider genus Phibdromus in North America (Araneida: Thomisidae). Canadian Entomol. 107:369-384.
  12. Dondale, CD. & J.H. Redner. 1976. A new nearctic species of Misurnenops (Araneida:Thomisidae). Canadian Entomol. 108:1007-1008.
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  35. Witt, P.N. & J.S. Rovner. (eds.).1982. Spider Communication Mechanisms and Ecological Significance. Princeton Univ. Press, NJ. 440pp.
  36. Spiders on the Web:
    The American Arachnological Society:
    http://www.americanarachnology.org/.
    Professionals and amateurs are welcomed, meetings are held annually.

    International Society of Arachnology:
    http://www.arachnology.org/
    Welcomes amateurs and professionals, meeting held every three years in different parts of the globe.

    The American Tarantula Society:
    http://www.atshq.org/index.shtml.

 Back cover: Tibellus duttoni, mating.

Back cover: Tibellus duttoni, mating.


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