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Kansas School Naturalist


KSN - Vol 42, No 1 - Muscle NamesVolume 42, Number 1 - January 1996

Muscle Names

by David Saunders

ABOUT THIS ISSUE

ISSN: 0022-877X

Published by EMPORIA STATE UNIVERSITY

Prepared and Issued by THE DIVISION OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

Editor: JOHN RICHARD SCHROCK

Editorial Committee: DAVID EDDS, TOM EDDY, GAYLEN NEUFELD

Editors Emeritus: ROBERT BOLES, ROBERT F. CLARKE

Circulation and Mailing: ROGER FERGUSON

Circulation (this issue): 7200

Press Run: 13,000

Typist: Nancy Gulick

Compilation: John Decker

Printed by: ESU Printing Services

Online edition by: Terri Weast

The Kansas School Naturalist is sent free of charge and upon request to teachers, school administrators, public and school librarians, youth leaders, conservationists, and others interested in natural history and nature education. In-print back issues are sent free as long as supply lasts. Out-of-print back issues are sent for one dollar photocopy and postage/handling charge per issue. A back issue list is sent free upon request. The Kansas School Naturalist is sent free by third class mail to all U.S. zipcodes, first class to Mexico and Canada, and surface mail overseas. Overseas subscribers who wish to receive it by airmail should remit US $5.00 per year (four issues) airmail and handling. The Kansas School Naturalist is edited and published by Emporia State University, Emporia, Kansas. Editor: John Richard Schrock, Division of Biological Sciences. Third class postage paid at Emporia, Kansas. Address all correspondence to Kansas School Naturalist, Division of Biological Sciences, Box 4050, Emporia State University, Emporia, KS 66801-5087. Opinions and perspectives expressed are those of the author(s) and/or editor and do not reflect the official position or endorsement of ESU.

Publication and mailing of this issue Kansas School Naturalist partly underwritten by contributions from readers like you.

Credits: Line illustrations from this issue are taken from several works by Andreas Vesalius, professor of anatomy at Padua, Italy in the mid-1500's, and from Gray's Anatomy, 1858. For additional background on both the history of anatomy and the origin of bone names underlying the muscles, see the Vol. 38, No. 1, 1992 issue of the Kansas School Naturalist, "Bone Names" by Edward Rowe.

EDITORIAL NOTE: The so-called "technical" language presented here is not just for physicians, but for everyday citizens who will be patients, who will sit on juries judging medical practices, who will vote on health-related laws, and who individually monitor their own health and collectively determine our health insurance rates. The precise use of words is the natural and necessary consequence of being an educated person and is part and parcel of operating as a healthy educated person. Dr. Saunders' essay weaves these terms into everyday life.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Dr. David Saunders is an Assistant Professor of Biology at Emporia State University. He is involved in the teaching of human anatomy and physiology and the bioscientific terminology course.


Muscle Names

by David Saunders

There are over 600 muscles in the human body. Identifying these six hundred muscles is a daunting task. Furthermore, the names of these muscles seem foreign to most of us. Most of our modern anatomical terms were developed throughout the mid- to late-1500s when many anatomists were performing dissections of the human body. (The history of anatomy and dissection is more fully discussed in The Kansas School Naturalist, Vol. 38, No. 1.) As a result of the influence of the early Greek and Roman anatomists, muscles were named using Latin and Greek roots. Thus, if you have some appreciation for Latin or Greek roots, you would have an advantage in knowing the function and/or location of a muscle in the body as a result of its name.

HOW MUSCLES ARE NAMED

Muscles can be named according to the direction their fibers run, their size, where they are found in the body, what bones they attach to, what the muscle looks like, where it is in relation to certain bones, and their function within the body. Often the name of a muscle contains combinations of each of the above.

1. Direction of Muscle Fibers:
When looking at a muscle, you can often see that it appears to have lines running within it. These lines are composed of muscle fibers and the direction that these fibers run in relation to the midline of the body has been used to provide partial names to many different muscles.

If the fibers of the muscle are running with or parallel to the midline of the body, the term rectus is often used to describe that muscle. Rectus is of Latin origin and literally means "straight." Some examples of muscles that have the term rectus in their name include the rectus femoris and rectus abdominis.

If the fibers of the muscle run at an angle to the midline of the body, they are said to run obliquely. The term oblique is also of Latin origin. Some examples of muscles that have the term oblique associated with their name include the internal and external oblique muscles of the thorax.

2. Muscle Size:
Early anatomists often included the name of the muscle something about its size or length. If a muscle were long, its name would likely include the term longus, while if the muscle were short, its name would contain the term brevis (Latin for "short"). Muscles that were large would have the term maximus (Latin for "largest" or "greatest"), major (Latin for "larger"), or vastus (Latin for "huge") in their names, while small muscles would contain terms such as minimus (Latin for "least" or "smallest") or minor (Latin for "smaller").

3. Location in the Body
Another component of many muscle names is the association of the muscle with a particular area of the body. The rectus abdominis is a straight muscle located in the abdominal region. The palmaris longus is a long muscle that attaches to connective tissue in the palm of the hand. Below are more examples of the Greek and Latin terms for the various regions of the body.

oris (L: "mouth")
oculi (L: "eye")
palmaris (L: "palm of the hand")
abdominis (L: "abdomen")
brachii (G: "arm")
femoris (L: "thigh")
tibialis (L: "shin bone")
peroneus (G: "fibula")
digitorum (L: "finger or toe")
pollicis (L: "thumb")
hallicus (L: "great toe")
costals (L: "rib")
carpi (G: "wrist")
spinalis (L: "spine")
scapularis (L: "shoulder blade")

Where in the body would you expect to find the following: biceps brachii, rectus femoris, adductor pollicis longus, orbicularis oculi, external intercostals, tibialis anterior, spinalis thoracis, peroneus longus?

4. Location of the Muscle Attachment (Association with Bone)
Many muscles are named as a result of their association with a particular bone. The temporalis muscle is found covering the temporal bone while the frontalis muscle is found covering the frontal bone of the skull.

5. Location of Muscle's Origin and Insertion on Bones:
All muscles have an origin and insertion. The origin is the part of the body, usually a bone, where the muscle attaches, and does not move when the muscle contracts. The insertion is the part of the body where the muscle attaches, and moves when the muscle contracts. Some muscles are named based upon their origin and insertion. The first part of the muscle name indicates the origin while the second part indicates the insertion. For example, the muscle that has its origin on the breast bone and clavicle (collar bone) and that inserts on a breast shaped process of the skull is termed the sternocleidomastoid: sterno (G: "breast bone"), cleido (G: "clavicle"), and mastoid (G: "breast shape").

6. Number of Origins:
Some muscles have multiple origins. As a result, the number of origins is often used in the muscle's name. Some common names: the biceps brachii and triceps brachii. The term bi is of Latin origin and refers to "two" while ceps, also of Latin origin, refers to "head." Thus this muscle has two heads that attach to two different origins. How many heads and origins would thetriceps brachii have?

7. Relation of the Muscle to the Bone:
Not only is a muscle sometimes named because of the bone to which it attaches, but the name may be even more detailed to describe where its position is in relation to the bone or body part. Below are given some Latin terms and prefixes that describe position.

supra (L: above or over)
infra (L: below or beneath)
sub (L: below or under)
lateralis (L: the side)
medialis (L: the middle)
inter (L: between or among)
external (L: outer)
internal (L: inner)
superior (L: above or over)
inferior (L: underneath)
dorsi (L: the back)
anterior (L: in front of)

Examples of muscles that contain some of the above terms include: supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, intercostals, external and internal obliques, superior and inferior rectus muscles of the eye.

Figure 1

Figure 1. Fifth Muscle Tabula from Epitome by Vesalius, 1542.

8. Shape of the Muscle:
Early anatomists often named muscles based upon their resemblance to common shapes. Some muscles named in this fashion include the deltoid, trapezius, orbicularis, and teres.

deltoid (delt, G: "triangle"; oid, G: "like")
trapezius (trapez, G: "table")
serratus (serrat, L: "a saw" or "saw toothed")
teres (tere, L: "round")
orbicularis (orbi, L: circle; cul, L: "little")
latissimus (lat, L: "broad" or "wide"; simus, L: "a likeness")

What would the following muscles look like and where would they be found: latissimus dorsi, orbicularis oculi, orbicularis oris?

9. Type of Action Produced By the Muscle:
The name of many muscles also includes that type of movement (action) which they bring about. Following are some terms that describe movements at joints brought about by muscle contraction. Each of these actions assumes that the body is in the anatomical position.

flexion (flex, L: "to bend") decreases the angle at a joint
extension (ex, L: "out"; ten, L: "stretch") increases the angle at a joint
adduction (ad, L: "to" or "toward"; duct, L: "lead") pulls the limb toward the midline
abduction (ab, L: "away" or "from"; duct, L: "lead") pulls the limb away from the midline
pronation (pron, L: "bent forward") turning the palm downward
supination (supin, L: "lying on the back") turning the palm upward

Muscles that pull an appendage inward are often termed flexors (e.g. flexor carpi radialis, flexor carpi ulnaris) while muscles that bring about extension are termed extensors (e.g. extensor digitorum, extensor carpi radialis).

Figure 2Figure 2. Muscle of the ventral surface of the upper arm from Gray, 1858.

MUSCLES OF THE UPPER LIMB

The upper limb (or arm) consists or three distinct regions: the shoulder, the upper arm (brachium) and the forearm (antibrachium).

1. Shoulder

There are six primary muscles of the shoulder:

a. deltoid

  • What would this muscle look like?
  • originates on the scapula and clavicle; inserts on the humerus
  • elevates the arm (abducts) at the shoulder

b. supraspinatus (supra, L: "above", "over", or "beyond"; spina, L: "spine")
c. infraspinatus (infra, L: "below"; spina, L: "spine")
d. subscapularis (sub, L: "below"; scapul, L: "shoulder blade")
e. teres minor (teres, L: "round"; minor, L: "small")
f. teres major (teres, L: "round"; major, L: "larger")

The supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis, and teres minor are the muscles of the rotator cuff. These muscles are involved in throwing and help to stabilize the humerus (upper arm) in the socket of the shoulder. It is the supraspinatus that is most often damaged in baseball players.

2. Upper Arm Muscles

g. biceps brachii (bi, L: "two"; ceps, L: "head") (brachi, L: "upper arm")

  •  origin on the scapula and humerus; insertion on the radius
  • flexes the upper arm at the shoulder joint
  •  flexes the lower arm at the elbow joint
  • rotates the arm as in turning a screwdriver

h. brachialis (brachi, L: "upper arm"; alis, L: "pertaining to")

  •  origin on the humerus; insertion of the ulna
  • flexes the lower arm at the elbow joint

i. triceps brachii (tri, L: "three"; ceps, L: "head"; brachi, L: "upper arm")

  • origin on the scapula and humerus; insertion on the ulna
  •  extends the arm at the elbow joint
  • known as the "boxer's muscle" as it allows for a straight jab

3. Forearm Muscles

j. brachioradialis (brachi, L: "upper arm"; radialis, L: "radius of the arm")

  •  obtains its name from its origin on the upper arm and its insertion on the radius
  • flexes the forearm at the elbow

k. pronator teres (pron, L: "bent forward"; tor, L: "muscle"; teres, L: "round")

  • originates from the humerus and ulna; inserts on the radius
  • this muscle receives its name due to its action
  • turns the forearm so that the palm faces downward (pronation)

l. flexor carpi radialis (flex, L: "to bend"; carpi, G: "wrist"; radialis, L: "radius")

  • obtains its name from its action, and its origin and insertion
  • originates on the medial portion of the humerus; inserts on the metacarpals
  • flexes and abducts the wrist (moves the wrist away from the midline)

m. flexor carpi ulnaris (flex, L: "to bend"; carpi, L: "wrist"; ulnaris, L: "refers to the ulna")

  • how did this muscle receive its name?
  • originates on the medial portion of the humerus and on the ulna; inserts on the lateral metacarpal
  • flexes and adducts the wrist (moves the wrist toward the midline)

n. palmaris longus (palm, L: "palm of the hand"; longus, L: "long")

  • named as a result of the part of the body it inserts with and the shape of the muscle
  • originates on the medial portion of the humerus; inserts on the connective tissue of the palm
  • flexes the wrist and palm

o. flexor digitorum superficialis (flex, L: "to bend"; digit, L: "finger or toe"; superficialis, L: "above")

  • named for its action on the fingers and its location in relation to other muscles that flex the fingers
  • originates on the humerus; inserts on second digit
  • flexes the wrist and specifically the second finger

p. flexor pollicis longus (flex, L: "to bend"; pollic, L: "thumb"; longus, L: "long")

  • named for its action on the thumb and that is the longest of the muscles that flex the thumb
  • originates on the radius; inserts on the distal bone of the thumb
  • flexes the thumb

q. extensor carpi radialis longus (ex, L: "out or beyond"; tens, L: "to stretch"; carpi, G: "wrist"; radialis, L: "radius"; longus, L: "long")

  • named for its action, the bone with which it is associated, the part of the body that is affected, and the size of the muscle
  • originates on the lateral side of the humerus; inserts on the second metacarpal
  • extends and abducts the wrist

r. extensor carpi ulnaris (ex, L: "out or beyond"; tens, L: "to stretch") (carpi, G: "wrist"; ulnaris, L: ulna)

  • name describes the action of the muscle, the bone that it is associated with, and the part of the body that is affected when the muscle contracts
  • originates on the lateral side of the humerus; inserts on the base of the second metacarpal
  • extends and adducts the wrist

s. extensor digitorum (ex, L: "out or beyond"; tens, L: "to stretch"; digit, L: "finger or toe")

  • name describes the action and parts of the body affected by that action
  • originates on the lateral side of the humerus; inserts on the back of the fingers
  • extends the fingers and the wrist

t. supinator (supin, L: "lying on back"; tor, L: "muscle")

  • name suggests its function
  • originates on the lateral side of the humerus; inserts on the lateral side of the radius
  • turns the arm such that the palm faces upward

Figure 3Figure 3. Second Muscle Tabula from Fabrica by Vesalius, 1543.

MUSCLES OF THE LOWER LIMB

Muscle of the Upper Leg

u. Gluteus maximus (glut, G: "the rump"; maximus, L: "largest")

  • name indicates where it could be found and its size
  • originates on the ilium and sacrum; inserts on the lateral side of the femur
  • extends the thigh and rotates the thigh laterally

* The gluteus maximus is the largest muscle in the body in regard to mass.

v. gluteus medius (glut, G: "the rump"; medius, L: "middle")

  • muscle associated with the rump and found between (in the middle of) the gluteus maximus and the gluteus minimus
  • originates on the ilium; inserts on the femur
  • abducts the thigh at the hip and rotates the thigh medially

* The gluteus medius is a common site for intramuscular injections

w. gluteus minimus (glut, G: "the rump"; minimus, L: "smallest")

  • this is the smallest of the muscles associated with the rump
  • originates from the lateral surface of the ilium; inserts on the upper and outer portion of the femur
  • abducts the thigh and rotates the thigh medially

x. rectus femoris (rectus, L: "straight"; femoris, L: "thigh")

  • name describes where it can be found and the direction that its fibers run
  • originates on the ilium; inserts on the upper portion of the tibia
  • flexes the upper leg (thigh) at the hip and extends the leg at the knee

Figure 4

Figure 4. Muscle of the ventral surface of the leg from Gray, 1858.

y. vastus lateralis (vastus, L: "huge"; lateralis, L: "the side")

  • this muscle is a very large muscle found on the lateral side of the thigh
  • originates on the upper lateral portion of the femur; inserts on the upper portion of the tibia
  • extends the lower leg at the knee

z. vastus medialis (vastus, L: "huge"; medialis, "middle")

  • this muscle is a large muscle found on the medial (middle) portion of the thigh
  • originates on the medial side of the femur; inserts on the upper portion of the tibia
  • extends the lower leg at the knee

aa. vastus intermedius (vastus, L: "huge"; inter, L: "among"; medius, L: "middle")

  • found between the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis
  • originates on the lower medial side of the femur; inserts on the upper portion of the tibia
  • extends the lower leg at the knee

* The rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and vastus intermedius collectively make up the quadriceps muscle (quadr, L: "four"; cep, L: "head").

bb. biceps femoris (bi, L: "two"; ceps L: "head"; femoris, L: "thigh")

  • has two points of origin and is associated with the thigh
  • originates on the ischium and femur; inserts on the upper posterior portion of the tibia
  • extends the thigh at the hip and flexes the lower leg at the knee

 

cc. semitendinosus (semi, L: "half"; tendin, L: "tendon")

  • this muscle gets its name from the fact that it becomes tendon-like in the middle of the thigh
  • originates from the ischium; inserts on the upper posterior surface of the tibia
  • extends the thigh at the hip and flexes the lower leg at the knee

dd. semimembranosus (semi, L: "half"; membran, L: "a membrane")

  • obtains its name from its thin, membranous appearance
  • originates from the ischium; inserts on the upper posterior portion of the tibia
  • extends the thigh at the hip and flexes the lower leg at the knee

* The biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus make up the hamstrings. The hamstrings are so named because butchers use the tendons of the muscles to hang "hams" to be smoked.

ee. adductor magnus (ad, L: "to or toward"; duct, L: "lead"; magnus, L: "great or large")

  • name describes its action on the thigh and its size
  • originates from the ischium; inserts on the medial surface of the femur
  • adducts the thigh at the hip

* Damage or tearing of theadductor magnus muscle is often referred to as a "pulled groin muscle".

ff. gracilis (gracil, L: "slender")

  • named for its slender appearance
  • originates on the pubis and ischium; inserts on the medial surface of the tibia
  • adducts the thigh at the hip and flexes the lower leg at the knee

gg. sartorius (sartori, L: "a tailor")

  • received its name from the fact that this muscle is used to cross the legs, and at one time, tailors would sit cross-legged while they sewed.
  • originates on the ilium; inserts on the upper medial portion of the tibia
  • flexes the lower leg at the knee and rotates the thigh laterally

* The sartorius is the longest muscle in the human body.

During Vesalius' time, most dissections were performed on animals due to the difficulty of getting human cadavers. Most dissection cadavers were obtained by grave robbing or from criminals that had been hanged. Figure 5 apparently was drawn from the cadaver of a criminal as noted by the noose still associated with the drawing.

Figure 5

Figure 5. Seventh Muscle Tabula from Fabrica by Vesalius, 1543. Note the diaphragm is shown in the upper right hand corner.

hh. gastrocnemius (gastro, G: "belly"; cnem, G: "the part between knee and ankle")

  • also known as the calf muscle, is the largest muscle between the knee and the ankle and thus its name.
  • originates on the posterior portion of the lower tibia; inserts on the heel via the Achilles tendon
  • flexes the lower leg at the knee and extends the foot at the ankle

* The gastrocnemius is also called the toe dancer's muscle as it is needed to contract in order for one to stand on his/her toes.

ii. peroneus longus (peron, G: "fibula"; longus, L: "long")

  • name refers to the bone that it covers and its length
  • originates on the lateral side of the tibia and upper portion of the fibula; inserts on the outer most metatarsal
  • extends the foot downward and rotates it outward

jj. tibialis anterior (tibialis, L: "shin bone") (anterior, L: "in front of")

  • named due to its association with anterior surface of the tibia
  • originates on the upper portion of the tibia; inserts on the first metatarsal
  • flexes the foot upward

kk. flexor hallucis longus (flex, L: " to bend"; hallucis, L: "great toe"; longus, L: "long")

  • named for its association with the big toe, its action on the toe, and that it is the longest of the flexor muscles of the toe
  • originates from the back portion of the fibula; inserts on the big toe
  • flexes the big toe

MUSCLES OF THE TRUNK

ll. pectoralis major (pectoral, L: "breast"; major, L: "larger")

  • name refers to the fact that it is the largest muscle that covers the chest
  • originates on the sternum and the second through sixth rib as well as a portion of the clavicle; inserts on the humerus
  • flexes, adducts and rotates the upper arm

mm. pectoralis minor (pectoral, L: "breast"; minor, L: "smaller")

  • the smaller muscle that covers the chest
  • originates on the third through fifth rib; inserts on the scapula
  • depresses the shoulder and elevates the rib if the shoulder is held steady

nn. latissimus dorsi (lati, L: "broad or wide"; dorsi, L: "the back")

  • the broad, flat shape of this muscle that is found on covering a significant portion of the back gives this muscle its name
  • originates from the spinal processes of the lower thoracic vertebrae and the lumbar vertebrae; inserts on the humerus
  • flexes, adducts and rotates the upper arm medially

oo. trapezius (trapez, G: "a table")

  • the diamond, or table shape of this muscle signifies the name
  • originates from the occipital bone and thoracic vertebrae and inserts on the clavicle and scapula
  • has many actions including the shrugging of the shoulders, and the extension of the head and neck backwards

Figure 6

Figure 6. First Muscle Tabula from Fabrica by Vesalius, 1543.

pp. serratus anterior (serrat, L: "a saw"; anterior, L: "in front of")

  • named for its saw-toothed appearance on the anterior portion of the body
  • originates on the anterior surface of the first nine ribs and inserts on the scapula
  • abducts and rotates the scapula medially

qq. diaphragm (dia, G: "across"; phragm, G: "a partition")

  • named as a result of forming a partition between the thoracic and abdominal cavity
  • primary muscle of inspiration

rr. external intercostals (extern, L: "outer"; inter, L: "between"; costal, L: "rib")

  • name tells one where it can be found, as it is the outer muscle located between the ribs
  • originates on the bottom of each rib; inserts on upper border of the rib below
  • elevates the ribs (used for active inspiration)

ss. internal intercostals (intern: L: inner; inter, L: "between"; costal, L: "rib")

  • name tells one where it can be found, as it is located between the ribs deep to the external intercostal muscles
  • originates on the top of each rib; inserts on bottom border of the rib above
  • depresses the ribs (used for active expiration)

tt. external oblique (extern, L: "outer"; oblique, L: "angling away from the midline")

  • name tells one about the direction of its fibers in relation to the midline of the body
  • originates on the lower eight ribs; inserts on connective tissue in the center of the abdomen
  • compresses the abdomen

uu. internal oblique (intern, L: "inner"; oblique, L: "angling away from the midline")

  • found underneath the external obliques
  • originates on the connective tissue of the back; inserts on the lower ribs, sternum, and connective tissue in the center of the abdomen
  • compresses the abdomen

vv. rectus abdominis (rectus, L: "straight"; abdominis, L: "refers to abdomen")

  • this muscle obtained its name due to its fibers running straight up and down with the midline and its association with the abdomen
  • originates on the pubis; inserts on the lower portion of the sternum
  • flexes the vertebral column

Figure 7

Figure 7. Ninth Muscle Tabula from Fabrica by Vesalius, 1543.

MUSCLE ANATOMY TERMS

abdominis (L: "abdomen")
abduction (ab, L: "away or from"; duct, L: "lead")
adduction (ad, L: "to or toward"; duct, L: "lead")
biceps (bi, L: "two"; ceps, L: "head")
brachii (G: "arm")
brevis (L: "short")
carpi (G: "wrist")
costals (L: "rib")
deltoid (delt, G: "triangle"; oid, G: "like")
digitorum (L: "finger or toe")
dorsalis (L: "the back ")
extension (ex, L: "out"; tens, L: "stretch")
external (L: "outer")
femoris (L: "thigh")
flexion (L: "to bend")
gluteus (G: "the rump ")
hallucis (L: "great toe")
internal (L: "inner")
lateralis (L: "the side")
latissimus (lat, L: "broad or wide")
longus (L: "long")
major (L: "larger")
maximus (L: "largest")
medialis (L: "toward the middle")
minimus (L: "smallest")
minor (L: "smaller")
oblique (L: "running at an angle from the midline")
oculi (L: "eye")
orbicularis (orb, L: "circle"; cul, L: "little")
oris (L: "mouth")
palmaris (L: "palm of the hand")
pectoralis (L: "breast")
peroneus (G: "fibula")
pollicis (L: "thumb")
pronation (pron, L: "bent forward")
rectus (L: "straight")
scapularis (L: "shoulder blade")
serratus (L: "a saw ")
sub (L: "under or below")
supination (L: "lying on the back")
supra (L: "above or over")
teres (L: "round")
tibialis (L: "shin bone ")
trapezius (G: "table")
triceps (tri, L: "three"; cep, L: "head")
vastus (L: "huge")
ventralis (L: "underside or belly")
scapularis (L: "shoulder blade")

REFERENCES

Ayers, Donald. 1972. Bioscientific Terminology: Words from Latin and Greek Stems. University of Arizona Press: Tucson, AZ.

Borror, Donald J. 1960. Dictionary of Word Roots and Combining Forms. Mayfield Publishing Company: Palo Alto, CA.

Gray, H. 1977. Anatomy, Descriptive and Surgical, A Revised American. From the Fifteenth English Edition. T.P. Pick and R. Howden Eds. Bounty Books: New York, NY.

Martini, F.H. 1995. Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology. 3rd Edition. Prentice-Hall: Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

McMurrich, J.P. 1930. Leonardo da Vinci: The Anatomist. Williams and Wilkins, Publ.: Baltimore, MD.

Rowe, Edward. 1992. "Bone Names". The Kansas School Naturalist, Vol. 38, No. 1. Emporia State University, Emporia, KS.

Shier D., J. Butler, and R. Lewis. 1996. Hole's Human Anatomy and Physiology. 7th Edition. Wm. C. Brown, Publ.: Dubuque, IA.

Singer, C. 1926. The Evolution of Anatomy, Alfred A. Knopf, Publ.: New York, NY.

Stedman, T.L. 1990. Stedman's Medical Dicitionary. 25th Edition. Williams and Wilkins: Baltimore, MD.


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