ABOUT THIS ISSUE
Published by EMPORIA STATE UNIVERSITY
Prepared and Issued by THE DIVISION OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
Editor: JOHN RICHARD SCHROCK
Editorial Committee: DAVID EDDS, TOM EDDY, GAYLEN NEUFELD
ROBERT BOLES, JOHN BREUKELMAN, ROBERT F. CLARKE
Typist: NANCY GULICK
Circulation and Mailing: ROGER FERGUSON
Circulation (this issue): 3100
Printed by: ESU Press
Online edition by: TERRI WEAST
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ABOUT THE AUTHORS
Marvin Schwilling is a native of Chase County Kansas and graduated from Colorado State University. He retired from the Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks in 1989, where he had worked 37 years. He managed the Cheyenne Bottoms Wildlife Management Area for 14 years and was most recently assigned to the nongame, threatened and endangered species program. Mr. Schwilling has authored two other issues of the Kansas School Naturalist, including "Kansas Nongame and Endangered Wildlife" in 1981 and "Cheyenne Bottoms" in 1985; both are now out-of-print.
Charles A. Ely was reared in Pennsylvania and began work in Kansas in 1960 after completing his doctoral work at the University of Oklahoma. He is presently Interim Chair, Department of Biological Sciences and Allied Health at Fort Hays State University and Curator of Birds and Insects in the Museum of the High Plains. In 1979 he organized an extensive survey of the butterflies of Kansas with Marvin Schwilling and Marvin Rolfs (a retired Math professor at FHSU). His most extensive research is with birds of Kansas and Mexico.
Butterflies can justly be referred to as jewels of our natural world. No segment of wildlife in the natural world can surpass them in sparkling color and diversity. Beautiful in form, coloration and pattern, their paintings and photographs have adorned our jewelry, magazines, clothing, wallpaper, coffee mugs, and much more.
However, the average person has little knowledge, other than a general awareness of their existence, about butterflies.
Most butterflies live through the winter in larval or egg stages. The larval form of the viceroy butterfly rolls up in a leaf and hibernates. Others, such as the mourning cloak and red admiral, hibernate during the winter as adults under loose bark or in tree cavities.
Butterflies are acutely sensitive to toxins and pesticides. Their diversity and relative abundance is an excellent indicator of the health of our ecosystem. A healthy environment has a large number and wide array of butterfly species.
This checklist of Kansas butterflies serves several functions. The numbered colored illustrations will help elementary students and teachers identify the more common butterflies of Kansas. And the full-citation checklist provides an updated accurate listing for research entomologists. This checklist is based on An Annotated List ofthe Butterflies of Kansas by Charles A. Ely, Marvin D. Schwilling and Marvin E. Rolfs available for $8.00 from the Museum of the High Plains, Fort Hays State University, Hays, KS 67601. The numbers here correspond to that publication which includes range maps for butterflies in the state. The order of names within each family reflects our understanding of the relatedness of the species. An additional seven species of butterflies have been added since the annotated list and are inserted here. The color illustrations were photographed primarily from the collections of Marvin Schwilling and Fort Hays State University.
Butterflies are divided into two superfamilies--the skippers and the true butterflies. These superfamilies are further broken down into families, genera and species.
Skippers are small butterflies. Most are tawny orange, brown, black or gray. They are heavy bodied, big-headed, compact and hairy with short triangular wings. The club of the antenna has a slender recurved tip. The name skipper is derived from their rapid skipping flight. Of the 182 species of butterflies recorded in Kansas, 61 are skippers.
FAMILY HESPERIIDAE Skippers
2. Urbanus proteus (Linnaeus) 1758. Long-tailed Skipper
6. Thorybes confusis Bell 1922. Confused Cloudywing
8. Achlyodes thraso (Hubner) 1807. Sickle-winged Skipper
9. Grais stigmaticus (Mabille) 1883. Stigmatic Duskywing
10. Chiomara asychis (Stoll) 1780. Asych's Skipper
11. Erynnis brizo (Boisduval & LeConte) 1834. Sleepy Duskywing
13. Erynnis horatius (Scudder & Burgess) 1870. Horace's Duskywing
14. Erynnis martialis (Scudder) 1869. Mottled Duskywing
15. Erynnis funeralis (Scudder & Burgess) 1870. Funeral Duskywing
16. Erynnis lucilius (Scudder & Burgess) 1870. Columbine Duskywing
18. Erynnis afranius (Lintner) 1876. Afranius Duskywing
19. Erynnis persius (Scudder) 1863. Persius Duskywing
22. Piruna pirus (W.H. Edwards) 1878. Pirus Skipperling
23. Nastra lherminier (Latreille) 1824. Swarthy Skipper
23a. Lerema accius (J.E. Smith) 1797. Clouded Skipper
25. Copaeodes aurantiaca (Hewitson) 1868. Orange Skipperling
27. Yvretta rhesus (W.H. Edwards) 1878. Rhesus Skipper
28. Hesperia uncas W.H. Edwards 1863. Uncas Skipper
29. Hesperia ottoe W.H. Edwards 1866. OUoe Skipper
30. Hesperia leonardus Harris 1862. Leonard's Skipper
31. Hesperia pahaska (Leussler) 1938. Pahaska Skipper
32. Hesperia metea Scudder 1864. Cobweb Skipper
33. Hesperia viridis (W.H. Edwards) 1883. Green Skipper
34. Hesperia attalus (W.H. Edwards) 1871. Dotted Skipper
35. Polites coras (Cramer) 1775. Yellow-patch Skipper
37. Polites origenes (Fabricius) 1793. Crossline Skipper
38. Wallengrenia otho (J.E. Smith) 1797. Broken-dash Skipper
39. Wallengrenia egeremet (Scudder) 1864. Northern Broken-dash
40. Pompeius verna (W.H. Edwards) 1862. Little Glassywing
44. Problema byssus (W.H. Edwards) 1880. Byssus Skipper
49. Atrytonopsis hianna (Scudder) 1868. Dusted Skipper
50. Amblyscirtes aenus W.H. Edwards 1868. Aenus Skipper
51. Amblyscirtes oslari (Skinner) 1899. Oslar's Skipper
52. Amblyscirtes erna HA. Freeman 1943. Ema Skipper
54. Amblyscirtes eos (W.H. Edwards) 1871. Eos Skipper
56. Amblyscirtes belli HA. Freeman 1941. Bell's Skipper
58. Calpodes ethlius (Stoll) 1782. Brazilian Skipper
59. Megathymus colorademsis C.V. Riley 1877. Colorado Yucca Skipper
60. Megathymus texanus Barnes & McDunnough 1912. Giant Skipper
Henry SKINNER (1861-1926) was trained as a gynecologist but abandoned medicine to study butterflies in 1900. Curating insect collections at the Philadelphia Academy of Sciences, Skinner traveled throughout the U.S. and Canada to collect specimens. He specialized in skipper butterflies where his name appears as author of many species.
William Henry EDWARDS (1822-1909) grew up on a 1200-acre farm in the Catskills. Butterflies were a serious hobby to the successful landowner, railroadbuilder and coal-mine operator. He published the classic "The Butterflies of North America" in three volumes (1872, 1884 and 1897). Edwards could not afford to publish the last volume and Dr. W. J. Holland paid for its publication in return for Edwards' collection. This insured that .the type specimens of the new species described by Edwards would remain in America. W. J. Holland was Director of the Carnegie Museum in Pittsburgh. While Edwards' 3-volume work cost a prohibitive $150, Holland soon published the less technical The Butterfly Book in 1898 with 48 color plates for just $5.00.
FAMILY PAPILIONIDAE Swallowtail Butterflies
Swallowtails are true butterflies and include the largest of our Kansas butterflies. These butterflies tend to have narrow bodies, long antennae, and brightly colored fuil wings with tailed hind wings. The giant swallowtail and zebra swallowtail are in this small group and are favored by collectors.
61. Battus philenor (Linnaeus) 1771. Pipevine Swallowtail
64. Papilio bairdii W.H. Edwards 1869. Baird's Swallowtail
65. Heraclides thoas (Linnaeus) 1771. Thoas Swallowtail
66a. Heraclides ornythion (Boisduval) 1836. Ornithion Swallowtail
68. Pterourus multicaudata (W.F. Kirby) 1884. Two-tailed Swallowtail
69. Pterourus troilus (Linnaeus) 1758. Spicebush Swallowtail
70. Priamides anchisiades (Esper) 1788. Anchisiades Swallowtail
Lepidoptera, the order name for butterflies and moths is composed of the words "lepido" (scale) and "ptera" (wing). The color of butterfly and moth wings comes from the layers of overlapping wing scales that somewhat resemble shingles on a roof. The scales are easily rubbed off when the wings are directly handled.
William H. Howe of Ottawa, Kansas is illustrator and coordinating editor of "The Butterflies of North America," Doubleday and Company, Inc., Garden City, New York. 1975. This 633 page book was conceived as a successor to W. J. Holland's classic work, The Butterfly Book, published in 1898 and revised in 1931. This book contains 97 full page plates that show 2,093 butterflies in full color. This book is of immense practical use to the professional lepidopterist but of limited use by amateurs since most are identified only by their latinized name.
FAMILY PIERIDAE Whites, Sulphurs and Orange-tips
Sulphurs and Whites are known by collectors as pierids. Most are medium sized and some shade of white, yellow, or yellowish green. A few have orange wing tips and others have greenish-yellow markings. Some members of this group, such as the yellow alfalfa butterfly, are our most common and abundant butterflies.
71. Appias drusilla (Cramer) 1777. Florida White
73. Pontia occidentalis (Reakirt) 1866. Western White
75. Ascia monuste (Linnaeus) 1764. Great Southern White
76. Ganyra josephina (Godart) 1819. Amaryllis White
82. Anteos clorinde (Godart) 1824. White Angled Sulphur
84. Phoebis philea (Johansson) 1763. Orange-barred Giant Sulphur
85. Phoebis agarithe (Boisduval) 1836. Orange Giant Sulphur
86. Aphrissa statira (Cramer) 1777. Statira
87. Kricogonia lyside (Godart) 1819. Lyside Butterfly
88. Eurema mexicana (Boisduval) 1836. Mexican Yellow
89. Pyrisitia proterpia (Fabricius) 1775. Tailed Orange
90a. Pyrisitia nise (Cramer) 1775. Mimosa Yellow
The earliest butterfly specialists were foreign. Carolus LINNAEUS (1707-1778) is the author of many buttefly names, and some names date back to 1758, the publication of the tenth edition of his Systema Naturae and the starting point for zoological nomenclature. Linnaeus was a pioneering biologist who never left Europe. He described over 2000 insects including U.S. specimens collected and sent to him in Sweden. He placed all insects in just seven orders. Today, entomologists recognize over 25 orders and spread his butterflies across more families and genera. Wherever his species have been moved to a new genus, his name appears in parentheses. (For further information see "Scientific Names, Common Names", KSN Vol. 37, No.1, Oct. 1990.)
J. Christian FABRICIUS (1745-1808) was a Danish pupil of Linnaeus. Traveling across Europe, Fabricius examined collections and described over 10,000 species of insects including butterflies sent from the Americas. Fabricius was the leading entomologist of the 1700s.
The French medical doctor, J.BA.D. deBoisduval (1799-1879), was attracted to insect collecting in his youth when he assisted a great beetle-collector P.F.M. Dejean. Underestimating the potential number of species, Boisduval set out to catalog all the Lepidoptera of the world. (Today we recognize 760 species of butterflies from North America alone, and an extimated 14,000 species of moths.)
FAMILY LYCAENIDAE Coppers, Blues, Hairstreaks, and Harvesters
The Gossamer wings or lycanid group of butterflies are rather small but some have a wingspread of near 2". Included are the blues, copers, hairstreaks and the Harvester.
93. Feniseca tarquinius (Fabricius) 1793. Harvester
96. Hyllolycaena hyllus (Cramer) 1775. Bronze Copper
97. Epidemia helloides (Boisduval) 1852. Purplish Copper
98. Atlides halesus (Cramer) 1777. Great Blue Hairstreak
99. Phaeostrymon alcestis (W.H. Edwards) 1871. Alcestis Hairstreak
100. Harkenclenus titus (Fabricius) 1793. Coral Hairstreak
101. Satyrium acadica (W.H. Edwards) 1862. Acadian Hairstreak
102. Satyrium edwardsii (Grote & Robinson) 1867. Edward's Hairstreak
103. Satyrium calanus (Hubner) 1809. Falacer Hairstreak
104. Satyrium caryaevorum (McDunnough) 1942. Hickory Hairstreak
105. Satyrium liparops (LeConte) 1833. Striped Hairstreak
106. Tmolus azia (Hewitson) 1873. Azia Hairstreak
108. Calycopis isobeon (Butler & H. Druce) 1872. Beon Hairstreak
109. Mitoura gryneus (Hubner) 1819. Olive Hairstreak
112. Parrhasius m-album (Boisduval & LeConte) 1833. White-m Hairstreak
115. Leptotes cassius (Cramer) 1775. Cassius Blue
116. Leptotes marina (Reakirt) 1868. Marine Blue
117. Zizula cyna (W.H. Edwards) 1881. Cyna Blue
118. Hemiargus ceraunus (Fabricius) 1793. Antillean Blue
122. Glaucopsyche lygdamus (Doubleday) 1841. Silvery Blue
123. Lycaeides melissa (W.H. Edwards) 1873. Melissa Blue
124. Icaricia acmon (Westwood & Hewitson) 1852. Acmon Blue
FAMILY LIBYTHEIDAE Snout Butterflies
FAMILY HELICONIIDAE Heliconians
126. Agraulis vanillae (Linnaeus) 1758. Gulf Fritillary
126a. Dryadula phaetusa (Linnaeus) 1758. Banded Orange
126b. Dryas iulia (Fabricius) 1775. Julia
126c. Eueides isabella (Stoll) 1781. Isabella Tiger
STARTING A BUTTERFLY COLLECTION
Insect collecting has long provided popular projects for young naturalists in school biology courses from elementary grades through college. It is a popular 4-H project as well as an activity for boy and girl scouts. Teachers and leaders frnd that assembling an insect collection is an excellent way to introduce students to the many aspects of animal diversity and interdependent relationships--the building blocks toward an understanding of ecology.
Beginning an insect collection requires a minimum of equipment, although specialized collecting equipment and storage cases may be added as a student's techniques and interest increase. Essentials are a butterfly net, a killing jar, insect pins, spreading board, labels and storage boxes. Your teacher or someone with past experience in collecting should be consulted for beginning assistance.
FAMILY NYMPHALIDAE Brush-footed Butterflies
Brush-footed butterflies belong to the family Nymphalidae. This is a large diverse family and most species are some shade of brown or orange with a wingspread up to 3". This group includes the regal fritillary, the only butterfly to be listed as threatened in Kansas.
128. Euptoieta claudia (Cramer) 1775. Variegated Fritillary
130. Speyeria aphrodite (Fabricius) 1787. Aphrodite Fritillary
132. Speyeria edwardsii (Reakirt) 1866. Edward's Fritillary
134. Chlosyne lacinia (Geyer) 1837. Geyer's Patched Butterfly
135. Charidryas gorgone (Hubner) 1810. Gorgone Crescent
138. Phyciodes vesta (W.H. Edwards) 1869. Vesta Crescent
139. Phyciodes phaon (W.H. Edwards) 1864. Phaon Crescent
141. Phyciodes pratensis (Behr) 1863. Field Crescent
142. Phyciodes picta (W.H. Edwards) 1865. Painted Crescent
143. Ephydryas phaeton (Drury) 1773. Baltimore
146. Polygonia progne (Cramer) 1776. Gray Comma
147. Nymphalis antiopa (Linnaeus) 1758. Mourning Cloak
147a. Aglais milberti (Godart) 1819. Milbert's Tortoise Shell
150. Vanessa annabella (Field) 1971. West Coast Lady
153. Anartia jatrophae (Johansson) 1763. White Peacock
154. Siproeta stelenes (Linnaeus) 1758. Pearly Malachite
157. Basilarchia weidemeyerii (W.H. Edwards) 1861. Weidemeyer's Admiral
158. Adelpha bredowii Geyer 1837. Mexican Sister
159. Eunica monima (Stoll) 1782. Dingy Purplewing
160. Eunica tatila (Herrich-Schaffer) 1853. Mexican Purplewing
161. Mestra amymone (Menetries) 1857. Amymone Butterfly
162. Marpesia petreus (Cramer) 1776. Ruddy Daggerwing
163. Anaea aidea (Guerin-Meneville) 1844. Eyed Goatweed
FAMILY SATYRIDAE Satyrs and Wood Nymphs
Satyrs or Browns, of the family Satyridae, are a group of dingy, dull brown or gray with a soft velvet like texture. Most are medium sized and range up to about a 2 1/2" wingspread.
168. Enodia creola (Skinner) 1897. Creole Pearly Eye
169. Cyllopsis gemma (Hubner) 1808. Gemmed Satyr
170. Hermeuptychia sosybius (Fabricius) 1793. Carolina Satyr
FAMILY DANAIDAE Milkweed Butterflies
Milkweed Butterflies, or Danaids, are a small group that includes only two species in Kansas - the queen and the monarch. The monarch is probably best known of all our butterflies due to its abundance, large size (up to 4" wingspread) and almost unbelievable migratory pattern.
Ely, Charles A., Marvin D. Schwilling and Marvin E. Rolfs. 1986. An Annotated List of the Butterflies of Kansas. Fort Hays State University, Hays, KS. 224 pp. including 175 maps.
Heitzman, J. Richard and Joan E. Heitzman. 1987. Butterflies and Moths of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation, Jefferson City, MO. 385pp. + color photos.
Howe, William H. 1975. The Butterflies of North America. Doubleday and Co., Garden City, NY. 633 pp. + 97 color photos.
Klots, Alexander B. 1951. A Field Guide to the Butterflies (Peterson Series). Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston. 328 pp. + 36 color plates.
Opler, Paul A. and George O. Krizek. 1984. Butterflies East of the Great Plains. John Hopkins Univ. Press. 294 pp. + 54 color plates.
Pyle, Robert M. 1981. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Butterflies. Knopf Inc., NY. 916 pp. + many color photographs.
_____. 1984. The Audubon Society Handbook for Butterfly Watchers. Charles Scribner's Sons, NY. 274 pp.
Scott, James A. 1986. The Butterflies of North America. Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA. 674 pp.
Tylka, Dave. 1987. Butterfly Gardening and Conservation. Missouri Department of Conservation, Jefferson City, MO. 16 pp.
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