ABOUT THIS ISSUE
The Kansas School Naturalist
Published by The Kansas State Teachers College of Emporia
Prepared and Issued by The Department of Biology, with the cooperation of the Division of Education
Editor: Robert J. Boles
Editorial Committee: James S. Wilson, Gilbert A. Leisman, Harold Durst, Robert F. Clarke
Online Edition: Terri Weast
The Kansas School Naturalist is sent upon request, free of charge, to Kansas teachers, school board members and administrators, librarians, conservationists, youth leaders, and other adults interested in nature education. Back numbers are sent free as long as supply lasts, except Vol. 5, No.3, Poisonous Snakes of Kansas. Copies of this issue may be obtained for 25 cents each postpaid. Send orders to The Kansas School Naturalist, Department of Biology, Kansas State Teachers College, Emporia, Kansas, 66801.
The Kansas School Naturalist is published in October, December, February, and April of each year by The Kansas State Teachers College, 1200 Commercial Street, Emporia, Kansas, 66801. Second-class postage paid at Emporia, Kansas.
"Statement required by the Act of October, 1962: Section 4369, Title 39, United States Code, showing Ownership, Management and Circulation." The Kansas School Naturalist is published in October, December, February, and April. Editorial Office and Publication Office at 1200 Commercial Street, Emporia, Kansas, 66801. The Naturalist is edited and published by the Kansas State Teachers College, Emporia, Kansas. Editor, Robert l Boles, Department of Biology.
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
Dr. Willis worked as a student assistant in the Biology Department of KSTC in his undergraduate days. He is now on the staff of the Department of Biology, University of Wisconsin, Platteville, Wisconsin.
by Harold L. Willis
Dept. of Biology. Univ. of Wisconsin
Tiger beetles are an interesting and common group of insects in Kansas, but because of their usually good flying ability, few people notice them, since they usually fly away from a person before he comes within ten feet of them. Therefore, most tiger beetles are difficult to catch, but that makes collecting them more exciting! Besides that, many tiger beetles are beautifully colored with bright metallic greens, reds, or blues, along with white stripes or spots, so that they make quite attractive insect specimens in a collection. Not only are dead specimens interesting, but a study of the life cycle and behavior of living specimens is fascinating and would make a good summertime project.
Adult tiger beetles are slender, long-legged insects, about 1/2 inch long (a few are larger or smaller). They have large, bulging eyes and long, sickle-shaped jaws, which give a clue to their food habits - they are predators on various insects or spiders that they find in their habitat. The body is more or less shiny and metallic-appearing. Not all species are brightly colored; many are relatively dull shades of brown or black, which helps them to be camouflaged, or hidden from their enemies, mainly insect-eating birds and larger insects (robber flies and dragonflies). However, even these dull species have brightly colored undersides. The wing covers (or elytra) that protect the delicate flying wings when the beetle is not flying usually have white stripes or spots, which also help to camouflage the beetle by visually breaking up its outline. These markings, plus their predatory way of life, are why these insects are called tiger beetles. Technically, tiger beetles belong to the family Cicindelidae, one of the most primitive types of beetle (all beetles are classifed as the order Coleoptera). They are most closely related to the ground beetles (family Carabidae).
Most tiger beetles are very active insects, running to and fro in short spurts on their long, slender legs. They are most active on hot, sunny days, but a few species are more active at night, and some will fly to electric lights, where they can be easily collected. Because of their active running and flying habits, most tiger beetles are found on bare areas with little or no vegetation to get in their way. Typical habitats to look in for tiger beetles include dirt roads or paths, roadside banks, lake shores or stream banks, sand bars, sand dunes, and salt flats. A few types can even be found in towns, where they are sometimes seen on sidewalks and parking lots! However, areas that are frequently disturbed, such as plowed fields or cattle feed lots, usually are poor habitats for tiger beetles. Interestingly, certain species are restricted to certain habitats, so you can find some types only in dry sandy areas, others in wet sandy areas, others on clay banks, others only on salty soil, etc. Also, some species are found as adults mainly in the spring and fall, while others are found only in the summer. So a student of tiger beetles must look in many different habitats and at different times of the year in order to find very many species.
The adult beetles mate and lay eggs in the spring or summer. The female digs a shallow hole in a favorable area of soil with her "egg layer" (or ovipositor), several curved spines found in the end of her abdomen. The eggs are tiny, about 1/16 inch long, and creamy white when first laid. For about 10-11 days, the embryo develops inside the egg shell. The egg gradually becomes yellowish as it develops. You can watch the embryo develop through the transparent shell with a microscope, which makes an interesting project (but keep the eggs in a covered container so that they will not dry out). When it is fully developed, the egg hatches into a tiny wormlike larva about 1/8 inch long. The larva has a large flat head region with several pairs of tiny, round simple eyes, plus large sickle-shaped jaws (the larvae are predators also). Behind the head is the thorax region, with three pairs of ra ther short legs. The first segment of the thorax is flat and is larger than the other two. Behind the thorax is a long, cream-colored abdomen of nine segments.
Just after the first-stage larva hatches, it busily begins the task of digging itself a home, which consists of a more or less vertical burrow in the soil. The larva digs small bits of soil with its head and jaws, and throws them out. Eventually a burrow ranging from 3/4 to five inches deep and 1/16 inch in diameter is completed. The burrows of most tiger beetle larvae are perfectly round, and can be found in the same general habitats as the adults. The larva spends most of its time perched at the top of its burrow waiting for prey to eat. If an unwary insect or spider walks too close to the larva, it will be quickly seized by the larva's sharp jaws and dragged down the burrow to be eaten. To better adapt them for these activities, the tiger beetle larvae (a) have strong spines on the fifth and ninth segments of their abdomen which dig into the walls of their burrow to help (along with their legs) hold them in position, and (b) have both the head and first segment of the thorax flat on top, camouflaged, and circular in shape; thus these two parts form a camouflaged "plug" to the round burrow when the larva is in position. This makes it very difficult for you (or the larva's prey) to see where the burrow is. However, the larvae are easily frightened, so if you get too close or move your hand over them, the larvae quickly retreat down their burrows to safety, and where you probably could not see anything unusual, suddenly there appear dark-empty-looking holes in the ground! Tiger beetle larvae are fun to watch, and sometimes you can catch insects and feed them. If something like a pebble falls down their burrow, they will carry it to the top and throw it away!
Tiger beetle egg; larva at top of burrow; pupa.
After the first-stage larva has eaten enough, it will plug its burrow with soil and change into a second-stage larva by shedding its "skin." The second-stage larva is similar in appearance to the first, but is about twice as big. Therefore the second-stage larva must dig a new home that fits. The diameter of the new burrow is about 1/8 inch and the depth 1 1/2 to 11 inches. After the second-stage larva has eaten enough, it changes into the third- (and last) stage larva. Again, this larval stage is larger (about 3/4 inch long) and digs a larger burrow (about 3/ 16 inch in diameter and 2 1/2 inches to well over a foot in depth).
Next, after the third-stage larva has eaten and grown fat, it plugs its burrow with soil and digs a special larger cavity at the bottom. Inside this, it sheds its "skin" and turns into an inactive stage, the pupa. The pupa is creamy white and rests upside down on special projections sticking out of its back. It more or less resembles the adult because it has a similar-shaped head, legs, etc., but its wings and wing covers are small and folded over its bottom side. After about three weeks of development, the pupa sheds its " skin" and turns into the adult beetle. At first the adult is creamy white and soft, but in about a week the adult gradually acquires its normal hardness and color. Then it may dig its way out of the soil and go about its business.
The entire life cycle takes a much longer time than that taken by most insects - at least a year, sometimes two, three, or four years. Most of the time is spent as the three larval stages. When winter comes, whatever stage the beetle is in must hibernate. Therefore, at least the larva, and in some species, the pupa or adult, will hibernate. Before hibernation, the burrow is deepened below the usual depth of frost.
In order to collect the adults, you will usually need to use an insect net. Since most tiger beetles fly away when frightened, you will have to stalk them slowly and carefully and sneak up until you are close enough to quickly slam the net over them. It works best if you hold the net handle in one hand and the end of the net bag in the other in order to keep it from blowing in the wind and frightening the beetle or snagging on vegetation. After you get the net over the beetle, you must quickly run up and try to trap the beetle with your fingers or else it will run out from under the net and fly away. After you have caught the beetle, pick it
Pinned and labeled specimen of adult tiger beetle.
Method of holding knife to catch larva.
out of the net, and if you do not want to keep it alive, kill it in an insect killing jar (a relatively safe killing jar can be made by putting several drops of ethyl acetate (fingernail polish remover works fine) on cotton or a layer of plaster of Paris in the bottom of a jar). Most tiger beetles that come to lights at night, and a few other species, do not fly and can be caught by hand. Sometimes a beetle will bite your finger when you pick it up, but although this is startling, it is not dangerous.
You can catch the larvae in three ways. One is to hold a knife blade at an angle close to the burrow and wait until the larva comes to the top. Then quickly stab the knife underneath the larva to keep it from dropping down the burrow. Another way, which does not always work well, is to "fish" them out of the bottom of their burrows. Get something like a long grass stem and stick it down the burrow until it stops. If the larva grabs the stem with its jaws, you can sometimes quickly jerk out the stem with a larva dangling at the end! The third way to collect larvae is the most work - dig them out. You have to be careful and try to follow the burrow. It helps if you stick a grass stem in it to make it easier to follow. You may also be able to dig up eggs or pupae, but they are hard to find. The easiest way to get them is to keep live adults until they lay eggs or keep larvae until they become pupae.
There are many interesting projects that you can do with tiger beetles. First, you can make a collection of adults and try to find as many different species as possible. There is not room here to explain in detail how to make an insect collection, but the book by Jaques listed in the References, is good. Briefly, adult beetles should be killed in a killing jar (mentioned earlier), mounted on special insect pins (stick the pin through the front of the right wing cover; common pins will work if insect pins are not available), and labeled (print the state, county, location, date, and collector's name on a small piece of thick paper or thin cardboard and stick it on the pin under the specimen). Fold the legs under the body so they will not get accidentally broken off later, and let the specimens dry several days (dried specimens are BRITTLE, but broken specimens can often be repaired by glue). Neatly arrange your pinned specimens in a box with soft material (corregated cardboard, styrofoam, balsa wood, etc.) glued to the bottom, and with a tight-fitting lid. Cigar boxes work well for the beginner, but better quality wooden boxes are used by professional entomologists, The boxes should have tight-fitting lids in order to keep out certain pests (cockroaches, ants, and especially a type of small round beetle, the dermestid beetle) which will get into collections and eat dead specimens. You should always keep some moth balls pinned or held securely in the corners of your specimen boxes to repel these pests. If you are not careful, many hours of hard work can be reduced to bits and pieces in a few days.
If you want to preserve larvae, they can be dropped directly into a small jar or vial of alcohol (ordinary rubbing, or isopropyl, alcohol diluted half and half with water). Print a label as mentioned earlier and put it in the container, but be sure to use indelible ink (such as India ink) or pencil.
Another type of project is to study the behavior of the adults or larvae. Many interesting hours can be spent watching the living beetles. If you sit quietly, the beetles will soon lose their fear and go about their business as if you weren't there. You also might try using binoculars to watch them from distance. You can keep records of their different activities in a notebook, and you can time with a watch how long they spend doing different things. Later you can add up the time spent in different activities and calculate the percent of the total time you watched them. You can either study their behavior in nature or else you can catch specimens and keep them indoors in a terrarium or large jar. Just pack some soil from their habitat into the container and put in the adults or larvae (if you transport the specimens in a car, keep them from getting too hot). A lid will be needed for the terrarium or jar, especially for adults. Larvae will soon dig new burrows. For most species, the soil will need to be kept moist, but not wet. Do not put too many beetles in one container or they may eat each other. You can feed them flies, crickets, or other such insects. If any food fragments are left, they should be removed before they get moldy. It is interesting to keep track of how often your specimens eat and what kinds of prey they will or will not eat, since there are some insects that have strong repellant odors (such as stink bugs, ladybird beetles, lacewings, etc.), and tiger beetles will not usually eat them. Also, tiger beetles usually do not try to eat something much larger than themselves. Not much is known about what all kinds of food they eat in nature. Ants, small beetles, caterpillars, and spiders seem to be favorites. If you find a beetle eating in nature, you should try to get the food away from the beetle as soon as possible, preserve it in alcohol, and identify it as well as possible (or send it to an entomologist to be identified). That way you may be able to add new knowledge to the study of tiger beetles.
Sometimes the beetles will die in captivity, but usually they will "tame down," and you may be able to keep them long enough to rear adults from larvae or get eggs and larvae from adults.
A more complicated type of project is to study the temperature preferences of adults or larvae, either in nature or indoors. You can use a thermometer to measure the temperature at ground level at different times of day and in different parts of the habitat where the beetles are found (for example, on exposed soil compared to the shade of a leaf, or at the edge of water compared to a dry sand dune). Insects die at hot temperatures (around 100-110 degrees F and above) and become sluggish and inactive at cool temperatures (around 70 degrees F and below). Different species "prefer" (are most active in) a certain range of temperatures. If the insect's local habitat temperature is too hot or too cold, it may move to a better part of its habitat. Not much research has been done on this with tiger beetles. Adults are sometimes seen sunning themselves on cool days, and on very hot days are often found in the shade of plants, near water, or in cracks in the soil. Adults often dig slanting burrows in the soil to escape high or low temperatures, and they also often dig them to sleep in overnight. Adults are sometimes not active at all in cool, cloudy weather. Generally, those species whose adults come out only in the spring and fall (see following list) prefer cooler temperatures than those whose adults are active all summer. Larvae generally are active (waiting for prey at the top of their burrows) most of the time (day and night) except when the temperature gets extremely hot or cold, or when the soil gets too dry or wet. Then they plug their burrow entrances and wait for better conditions.
If you keep accurate records of temperatures and activities of tiger beetles in nature or in an indoor container, you again may add new knowledge to the science of entomology.
Another interesting project is to catch some adults, carefully daub a small spot of paint on their backs, and purposely let them go again. If you are careful not to harm them and do not scare them too much, you may discover previously unknown facts about the dispersal ability of tiger beetles. You can go back to the area where you released the beetles a few days later (or repeatedly over longer periods) and carefully walk around looking for marked beetles (try not to scare them so much that they fly very far). Sketch a map of the area and record the exact place and distance from the original point of release that you see each marked beetle. Almost nothing is known about how far tiger beetles move in nature, but apparently they do not usually go far over short periods of time. Even though most adults can fly very well, they normally move only by running, unless frightened by a larger animal (or entomologist!). You will need to use some type of marking that will not harm the beetle and will not come off. Paints such as enamel, fingernail polish, and airplane dope sometimes work. A new invention, the felt-tip pen, may work if used on the white spots or stripes of the wing covers. You could use different colors or numbers of spots to mark individuals, and maybe that way keep track of the travels of "Joe," "Sam," "Charlie," etc.!
Common Kansas Species
It is fun to try to identify your specimens of tiger beetles. There are about 30 species in Kansas, but less than 20 are very common. Larvae are very difficult to identify, but most species of adults can be told apart fairly easily. You can usually identify the species by noting the details of the white pattern on the wing covers and their color. In a few species the white pattern or the color are different in different individuals. Sometimes other things must also be observed. Following are drawings of the left wing cover, along with a list of color, habitat, and other notes to help you identify the most common species in Kansas. Nearly all species in Kansas are in the genus Cicindela. Two other genera are found in the state, but only one is common, Megacephala.
|Cicindela repanda - reddish brown; spring and fall; sandy lake shores, stream banks and sand bars (sometimes on clayey soil); very common statewide.|
|Cicindela duodecimguttata - dark brown; spring and fall; clayey stream banks; common statewide, but more common in eastern 1/2.|
|Cicindela tranquebarica - brown; spring and fall; sandy roads, lake shores and stream banks; common statewide.|
|Cicindela hirticollis - reddish brown; summer and fall; sandy lake shores and stream banks, sand bars; common statewide except southeastern 1/4.|
|Cicindela nevadica - brownish (occasionally green or blue); summer; salt flats and salty lake shores or stream banks, sand bars; scattered in western 2/3; comes to lights.|
|Cicindela cuprascens - shiny brassy, brown, or reddish (occasionally bluish); summer; sandy lake shores or stream banks, sand bars; common statewide; comes to lights.|
|Cicindela macra - dull brownish or dark green-brown; summer; sandy lake shores or stream banks, sand bars; fairly common statewide; comes to lights.|
|Cicindela fulgida - shiny bright red or purplish; spring and fall; dry salty soil among sparse grass, salt flats; scattered in western 2/3.|
|Cicindela formosa - bright red (brownish in eastern 1/3); spring and fall; dry sandy areas; common statewide except southeastern 1/4.|
|Cicindela punctulata - blackish (occasionally greenish or bluish in western 1/2); summer; very common in many habitats; comes to lights.|
|Cicindela purpurea - greenish (occasionally black); spring and fall; clayey soil in prairie habitats, dirt roads and banks; scattered statewide.|
|Cicindela splendida - reddish with blue (or greenish) edge (head blue or greenish); spring and fall; reddish clay banks; scattered statewide.|
|Cicindela sexguttata - bright green or bluegreen; spring and early summer; dirt roads, paths, and dry stream beds near woods; common in eastern 1/2.|
|Cicindela scutellaris - bright red, sometimes green at front (head blue or greenish) in western 2/3, or darker purple, brownish, greenish, etc. in eastern 1/3, spring and fall; dry sandy areas; common statewide except southeastern 1/4.|
|Cicindela circumpicta - either reddish, green, or blue; summer; salt flats; scattered statewide except northeastern 1/4; comes to lights.|
|Cicindela togata - brownish; summer; salt flats; scattered in central 1/3; comes to lights.|
|Cicindela lepida - tan (but markings so wide that wing covers are nearly white); spring and summer; dry sandy areas; scattered statewide except southeastern l/4; comes to lights.|
|Megacephaia virginica - large (total length 3/4 to 7/8 inch); shiny dark green (legs tan); summer; various habitats with clayey soil; most common in South and East; active at twilight and night, sometimes comes to lights, does not fly.|
Key To Kansas Species
If you want to go into more detail in identifying your adult specimens, and if you have a low power microscope (a binocular microscope, or stereoscope, of about 15-30 power magnification), you can use the following key to identify all of the species in Kansas (this key will not work successfully in other parts of the country, a key to all U.S. species of Cicindela is found in Willis, 1968). To use the key, begin at the first pair of choices (1a. and 1b.) and go to the number shown after whichever choice fits your specimen. Continue this process at the choices at that number until you arrive at the name of the species. All colors given in the key refer to the top of the body unless stated otherwise. Body lengths refer to the length measured from the front of the head to the tip of the wing covers (elytra), not including antennae or legs. A glossary of technical terms used in the key is found after the key. Certain other terms used for the white pattern are illustrated in the accompanying picture.
1a. Very large (body length over 1 inch); dark brown - Amblychila cylindriformis
1b. Smaller (less than 7/8 inch); color variable - 2
2a. Legs tan AND body and legs without white setae - 3
2b. Both of above characteristics not present at once - genus Cicindela - 4
3a. Elytra without markings; mostly shiny green - Megacephala virginica
3b. Elytra with C-shaped spots at tip; shiny reddish and green - Megacephata carolina (rare in Kans.)
4a. Clypeus with many decumbent setae - 5
4b. Clypeus with no setae, or only a few erect setae - 9
5a. Prosternum with many decumbent setae - C. togata
5b. Prosternum without setae - 6
6a. Elytra nearly all white; legs tan - C. lepida
6b. Elytral pattern more typical; legs dark or metallic - 7
7a. Elytra with basal dot - 8
7b. Elytra without basal dot - C. nevadica
8a. Elytra shiny, with deep punctures - C. cuprascens
8b. Elytra dull, with shallow punctures - C. macra
9a. Frons with many erect setae in middle - 18
9b. Frons with only a few erect setae near inner edges of eyes - 10
10a. With white setae on body or legs; color variable - 11
10b. With no white setae on body or legs; dark bluish - C. belfragei
11a. Very small (body less than 3/8 inch); brown - C. celeripes
11b. Body over 3/8 inch long; color variable - 12
12a. Labrum very large (almost as long as wide); brown with white spot at center of outer edge of each elytron - C. unipunctata (rare in Kans.)
12b. Labrum average sized; color and pattern variable - 13
13a. Elytra with microserrations - 16
13b. Elytra without mi c roserrations - 14
14a. Large (over 5/8 inch) - C. obsoleta
14b. Average sized (1/2 inch or less) - 15
15a. First segment of antenna with many setae - C. scuteltaris
15b. First segment of antenna with only a few setae near tip - C. nigrocoerulea
16a. Markings connected at edge into a wide band - C. circumpicta
16b. Markings not a wide band (may be a narrow partial band at outer edge) - 17
17a. Markings with dots on front 1/3 of elytra - C. punctulata
17b. Markings without dots on front 1/3 of elytra, or no markings - C. sexguttata
18a. Genae with setae - 19
18b. Genae without setae - 28
19a. Front edge of labrum with one or no large "teeth" - 20
19b. Front edge of labrum with three or more large "teeth" - 22
20a. Setae of proepisternum decumbent - C. limbata (rare in Kans.)
20b. Setae of proepisternum erect - 21
21a. Humeral lunule complete, nearly connected to marginal line; usually reddish brown - C. repanda
21b. Humeral lunule usually broken into 2 dots, separated from marginal line (usually no marginal line); dark brown - C. duodecimguttata
22a. Humeral lunule complete - 23
22b. Humeral lunule broken into dots or absent - 25
23a. With marginal line, or nearly so - 24
23b. Without marginal line - C. tranquebarica
24a. Labrum fairly large; body usually shorter than 9/ 16 inch - C. lengi
24b. Labrum average sized; body usually longer than 9/ 16 inch - C. formosa
25a. Elytra about the same color as head and pronotum - 26
25b. Elytra reddish, head and pronotum blue to green - C. splendida
26a. Elytra AND proepisternum green - C. denverensis
26b. Elytra reddish, black, or green (but if green, proepisternum reddish) - 27
27a. Elytra reddish - C. limbalis
27b. Elytra green, greenish - red, or black - C. purpurea
28a. Middle band complete - 29
28b. Middle band reduced to a triangular spot, or absent - 32
29a. Shiny red or purplish - C. fulgida
29b. Color brown or reddish brown - 30
30a. Humeral lunule long and oblique - C. tranquebarica
30b. Humeral lunule short and C-shaped or hooked - 31
31a. Humeral lunule C-shaped - C. willis toni
31b. Humeral lunule hooked - C. hirticollis
32a. Body shorter than 1/2 inch - C. scutellaris
32b. Body longer than 5/8 inch - C. pulchra
Left wing covers of 18 common Kansas species; numbers refer to those in text.
Glossary of Terms in Key
CLYPEUS - a narrow horizontal section of the front of the head, below where the antennae attach and above the labrum.
DECUMBENT - referring to setae that lie flat against the body.
ELYTRA (singular, ELYTRON) - the wing covers, covering the rear half of the body.
ERECT - referring to setae that stand up from the body.
FRONS - the front of the head, between the eyes and antennae.
GENAE (singular, GENA) - the area of the head below the eyes.
LABRUM - the large flat plate-like area in front of the head below the clypeus; it is usually white and covers the bases of the jaws.
MICROSERRATIONS - many tiny teeth (use high magnification to see them) along the rear edge of the elytra (see picture also).
PROEPISTERNUM - large triangular area at the side of the first segment of the thorax, above the attachment of the first pair of legs (on each side).
PRONOTUM - top surface of the first segment of the thorax (between the head and elytra).
PROSTERNUM - small area at the bottom of the first segment of the thorax, between and in front of the attachment of the first pair of legs.
PUNCTURES-small pits on the elytra, between the white markings.
SETAE - hairs on the body surface, usually white but sometimes dark.
Chapman, R.N., C.E. Mickel, J.R. Parker, G.E. Miller, and E.G. Kelley. 1926. Studies in the ecology of sand dune insects. Ecology. 7:416-427.
Criddle, N. 1910. Habits of some Manitoba tiger beetles (Cicindelidae). Canadian Entomologist. 42: 9-15.
Hamilton, C.C. 1925. Studies on the morphology, taxonomy, and ecology of the larvae of holarctic tiger-beetles (family Cicindelidae). Procedings of the U.S. National Museum. 65(17):1-87.
Jaques, H.E. 1947. How to know the insects, 2nd ed. Wm. C. Brown Co, Dubuque, Ia . 205 p.
Knaus, W. 1900. The Cicindelidae of Kansas. Canadian Entomologist. 32:109-116.
Lantz, D.E. 1904. Notes on collecting Cicindelidae. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science. 19:252-260.
Leng, C.W. 1902. Revision of the Cicindelida of Boreal America. Transactions of the American Entomological Society. 28: 93-186.
Macnamara, C. 1922. Tiger beetle larvae. Canadian Entomologist. 54: 241-246.
Shelford, V.E. 1917. Color and color pattern mechanism of tiger beetles. Illinois Biological Monographs. 3: 1-134.
Smyth, E.G. 1905. Notes on collecting Cicindelidae. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science. 19: 425-432.
Willis, H.L. 1967. Bionomics and zoogeography of tiger beetles of saline habitats in the central United States (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae). University of Kansas Science Bulletin. 47(5): 145-313.
Willis, H.L. 1968. Artificial key to the species of Cicindela of North America north of Mexico (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society. 41: 303-317.
Willis, H.L. 1970. The Cicindelidae of Kansas. Cicindela. 2(1): 1-27.
1972-1973 AUDUBON SERIES
February 1, 1973 - Scandanavian Saga, John D. Bulger presenting.
February 15, 1973 - Treasure of East Africa. Bower E. Rudrud presenting.
All programs will start promptly at 7:30 p.m. in Albert Taylor Hall on the KSTC campus. For further information contact Dr. John Ransom, KSTC Biology Department, 343-1200, Extension 311.
MAKE YOUR PLANS
It is not too early to start making plans to attend one of the 1973 Summer Sessions at Kansas State Teachers College.
High Schools and Junior Colleges are invited to bring the young men and women who will be graduating in the spring to visit the Biology Department, see our facilities, and discuss our various programs with the Biology Staff.
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