KSN - Vol 18, No 4 - Field Trips for the 70'sVolume 18, Number 4 - April 1972

Field Trips for the 70's

by John Breukelman and Harold Durst


Published by The Kansas State Teachers College of Emporia

Prepared and Issued by The Department of Biology, with the cooperation of the Division of Education

Editor: Robert J. Boles

Editorial Committee: James S. Wilson, Robert F. Clarke, Gilbert A. Leisman, Harold Durst

Exofficio: Dr. Edwin B. Kurtz, Head, Dept. of Biology

Online edition by: Terri Weast

The Kansas School Naturalist is sent upon request, free of charge, to Kansas teachers and others interested in nature education. Back numbers are sent free as long as the supply lasts, except Vol. 5, No. 3, Poisonous Snakes of Kansas. Copies of this issue may be obtained for 25 cents each postpaid. Send orders to The Kansas School Naturalist, Department of Biology, Kansas State Teachers College, Emporia, Kansas.

The Kansas School Naturalist is published in October, December, February, and April of each year by The Kansas State Teachers College, 1200 Commercial Street, Emporia, Kansas. Second-class postage paid at Emporia, Kansas.

"Statement required by the Act of October, 1962: Section 4369, Title 39, United States Code, showing Ownership, Management and Circulation." The Kansas School Naturalist is published in October, December, February, and April. Editorial Office and Publication Office at 1200 Commercial Street, Emporia, Kansas, 66801. The Naturalist is edited and published by the Kansas State Teachers College, Emporia, Kansas. Editor, Robert J. Boles, Department of Biology.

Field Trips for the 70's

by John Breukelman and Harold Durst

This number of The Kansas School Naturalist is essentially a reprinting of the October 1959 issue, FIELD
TRIPS, long since out of print. We have made some minor revisions in the text, replaced some of the illustrations, and up-dated the reference list. Like its predecessor, this issue is directed to those who, being interested in nature and nature study, like field trips for themselves and their students, and to those who would like to plan such trips, even though they are inexperienced.


Is there really anything to be learned by going on field trips that could not be learned more quickly and easily by conscientious memorizing in the classroom? Is there anything to see on a field trip that could not be seen as well, and sometimes even better from carefully selected pictures, slides, and movies? Perhaps not, but those who have taken many groups on field trips, whether groups of children or adults, whether on long or short trips, agree there is excitement and motivation in actually going where the sights, sounds, and smells of nature are. They also agree that this excitement and motivation may be used (1) to stimulate students to discover things for themselves, that field trips may (2) start life-long interests in nature and nature study, and that (3) they can provide a wealth of activities for constructive use of spare time. Field trips may be so conducted as to inspire respect for the environment, and especially for the ways in which living things adjust themselves to their environments.

Not the least value of field trips is that they may be used to show the need for better care of the out-of-doors.  Those who have been on well conducted field trips are probably less likely to be litterbugs and more likely to show outdoor courtesy. Field trips may prove the basis for appreciation of the need of conservation and for sound understanding of conservation problems and practices.


If possible, the leader and his assistants should go over the route ahead of time, while conditions are about the same as those expected to prevail at the time of the proposed trip; thus if the trip is to be taken in the early morning hours, the leader should go over the route early in the morning.

Whenever necessary or appropriate the leader gets permission from the landowners, park superintendents, or others responsible for the grounds on which the trip is to be taken. If he fails to get such permission he may be trespassing. When children are involved, it may be necessary to get the consent of their parents or guardians.

If the trip is of any length, it will be necessary to locate suitable lunch and rest stops. If the trip is to be by automobile, the leader should make sure in advance that adequate and safe places to park will be available.

Before the trip starts, the leader should explain to the group just what the trip is for, what its objectives are and what is likely to seen. He should also explain that one can never plan a field trip completely, and that one gets the most benefits from field trips by being alert to anything that may turn up. The leader should explain what is suitable dress and footwear for the occasion, and any precautions to be taken about poison ivy, chiggers, ticks, and other natural hazards that may be encountered. If insect repellents are necessary, their correct use should be explained, especially if they come in aerosol ca ns or squirt bottles. If cameras, field glasses, or other pieces of equipment are taken, the correct use of each item should be explained.

On many occasions it is practical to organize a field trip group into one or more teams. Such a team is suggested in the accompanying cartoon sketch. In this case the team consists of seven members and a leader. If there were twelve in the group, another team could be organized, consisting of only five members - perhaps one camera and one notebook would do for both teams. Or the camera might be omitted and the group of twelve arranged into two teams of six each. Each team member is responsible for a specific task and for certain items of equipment. At times the whole group may be assigned a common job, such as forming a line to march across a pasture and look for ground nesting birds and their nests. But when the common job has ended, each team member resumes his assigned duty. The leader may wish to separate the teams and have each go its own way; in this case an assistant will be needed for each additional team.

If the same group goes on several trips, the team duties may be rotated so that each individual has an opportunity to get more varied experiences. If the trip is a long one with several good stopping places or breaks, it may be best to rotate duties several times on a single trip. The leaders must be sure that each person understands which duties he is to perform during each part of the trip.

In the accompanying sketch showing a field trip team, A is responsible for the insect net, B for the plant digger, and C for the home-built carrier with its miscellany of collecting cans and jars. D may or may not be successful; some insects are easily caught this way and others are not. E will have a photographic record of the trip. F is in charge of the plant collecting can, or vasculum, and G keeps a record of specimens collected and other pertinent data. The trip leader, H, stands ready to give help where needed and to answer questions. He keeps the group together and their attention centered on the business at hand.


The following are some examples of field trips that have been conducted by ourselves, our colleagues, or students. This is by no means a complete list of possibilities, in fact it is only a small sampling.

KSN - Vol 18, No 4 - Field Trips for the 70's

1. Campus Field Trip for General Biology Students

The students were led, in groups of about 20, along more or less formally arranged routes over the Emporia State campus, to observe some of the aspects of plant and animal life studied in the General Biology course. The trips usually took about 45 minutes.

2. Ecology Three-day Field Trips

Undergraduate and graduate students in various ecology classes were taken by car to such areas as Cheyenne Bottoms, various wildlife refuges, the sand dunes, the salt marshes, and selected Flint Hills areas. The typical trip was taken near the end of the course, to illustrate as many ecological situations as feasible within the areas covered. Such a trip requires careful planning - hotel or motel reservations, camping facilities, meal stops, rest stops. The leader must "watch the time" so as to avoid using too much time at the early stops and having to rush through or omit some of the later ones.

KSN - Vol 18, No 4 - Field Trips for the 70's

A shady wooded hillside often yields a wide variety of plant and animal specimens, but this group was examining Hermit's Cave, one of the points of historical interest in Council Grove.

KSN - Vol 18, No 4 - Field Trips for the 70's

KSN - Vol 18, No 4 - Field Trips for the 70's

KSN - Vol 18, No 4 - Field Trips for the 70's

KSN - Vol 18, No 4 - Field Trips for the 70's

3. Conservation Workshop, Soil and Water Conservation Field Trip

The members of the summer conservation workshop were taken by bus over a route of about 100 miles, from Emporia to Council Grove and return. This trip has been under the direction of the local Soil Conservation personnel, even though it was a routine class trip. Most of the morning was spent observing soil and water conservation practices such as terraces and waterways, watershed control, contour farming, farm ponds, crop rotation, and grass restoration. After a lunch stop and brief program at Council Grove, about two hours were spent under the direction of local personnel, in a guided tour of the many points of historical interest in and about Council Grove, after which the group returned to Emporia, reviewing on the return trip many of the conservation practices observed during the morning.

4. Spring Vacation Trips

During spring vacations various groups or undergraduate and graduate biology students were taken by bus to the Port Aransas Wildlife Refuge, the Welder Wildlife Foundation, and the gulf coast near Corpus Christi. Texas. Such an extensive trip requires careful adva nce planning and detailed scheduling. If much collecting is to be done, it is essential that the equipment be carefully planned, so there will be space available both for the equipment and the materials collected.

5. Bird Hikes

These are most effective when started at about daybreak, and when it is possible to cover a variety of habitat types. If bird hikes are part of a class, it is possible to instruct the students carefully in advance concerning the use of field glasses, field bird guides, notebooks or checklists, and the best procedures for getting to see birds at close range. If the hike is an informal one, associated with a camp or meeting, such advance preparation may not be possible. In the latter case a ten or fifteen minute briefing period at the beginning of the trip will add greatly to its effectiveness.

6. The Christmas Bird Census

Participants in the census, under the auspices of the National Audubon Society make a record of the kinds and numbers of birds seen during the course of a trip of several hours, covering as many as possible of the available habitats in the area. The census takers are organized into groups, going in different directions from the central location. They travel by car and on foot, keeping track of the amount of time spent in each type of habitat and the approximate distance covered. The census takes place during the week before Christmas and New Years, and the results from all over the United States are compiled by the National Audubon Society.

7. "Frogging" Trips

These trips occur during the season when frogs are calling (March, April, or May, depending on the species and the locality) during the evening hours. For most species such trips are most effective during the first half of the night. Flashlights or headlights are necessary; if collecting is to be done, jars or other containers should be carried. Froggers should wear boots or be so dressed that they will not mind wading. (It should be remembered that bullfrogs are protected by state law and may be taken only in accordance with state fish and game laws. Copies of these laws may be obtained from the Forestry, Fish and Game Commission, Pratt, Kansas, 67124.)

8. Photography

We have taken several field trips organized around the idea of a pictorial record. If the group is small, each person can carry a camera. The cameras may be of different sizes, and loaded with different films. If there is a movie camera in the group, so much the better. Black-and-white and color - prints and slides - stills and movie shots - all can be valuable in teaching and study. Several of our former students have, with the experience gained on such picture-taking trips, developed highly functional visual aids for studying the common habitats in the areas surrounding their schools.

If the field group is large, two or three of the members may be designated as the "official" photographers, who will be responsible for the official class record.

9. Short Trips Within Class Periods

At various times we have taken classes out on field trips as short as ten minutes, to see such things as:

a) erosion effects resulting from a three-inch rain on a newly graded highway slope;
b) spatter erosion leaving soil on the school foundation where unprotected soil was next to the foundation, and the clean foundation where grass was next to the foundation;
c) magnolias in blossom in a nearby yard;
d) fungi and lichens growing on a tree trunk in the school yard;
e) an exceptionally heavy algae "bloom" in the campus lake;
f) buffalo grass in blossom;
g) fish-stocking activities;
h) a well formed fairy ring;
i) swarming activities of honey bees.

10. "Around the World in Eighty Steps"

This title was used by the late Dr. E. Laurence Palmer of Cornell University to designate a short trip, within a class period or the time scheduled for a teachers' meeting. The trip, usually around a school or other public building, emphasizes world biogeography by noting the places of origin of common lawn and garden plants. For example, "here is an apple tree (southeastern Asia), a hollyhock (China), and a peony (Europe); over there you see tomatoes (South America), turnips (Russia), and radishes (Egypt). What biological characteristics make it possible for all of them to live and prosper together here in Kansas?"

Many students have been interested in this kind of trip to the extent of following up with library investigations to find out where more of our common plants (and animals) came from and how they got here.

The above are only a few examples: we have helped farmers make biological surveys of their pasture ponds, made counts of the robins and robin nests (60 on one occasion) on the campus, observed the feeding activities in a colony of great blue herons, recorded annual variations in the numbers of heron nests in a large colony, brought in samples of frozen earth with their dormant plant and animal forms, observed wind erosion in action, and many more.

The above illustrations bring out several points - that a field trip is usually arranged (1) to take advantage of some seasonal feature, (2) to observe some specific kinds of plants or animals, (3) to observe types of plant or animal habitats, or (4) to illustrate in the field that which has already been studied in the classroom or laboratory. It is generally agreed among those who have used field trips most effectively that anyone trip should have a major objective or a primary feature of interest. This does not mean that the objective is always attained, or that the primary feature of interest will be available at the precise time of the trip. It is therefore necessary for the director to be alert to other possibilities, and even to have some planned alternates in case the trip does not yield exactly what was hoped.

KSN - Vol 18, No 4 - Field Trips for the 70's

Examining types of grasses along a Lyon County roadside; a conservation group travelling in a caravan.

KSN - Vol 18, No 4 - Field Trips for the 70's

Field identification, in the field.

KSN - Vol 18, No 4 - Field Trips for the 70's

KSN - Vol 18, No 4 - Field Trips for the 70's

Field trips are fun for both children and adults.

KSN - Vol 18, No 4 - Field Trips for the 70's

The shoreline of a lake or fenced farm pond (if not fenced, a farm pond shoreline may be so stirred up by cattle walking in and out that it is nearly worthless as a nature study area) offers many opportunities for short or extensive field trips. A succession of plants-algae and pond - weeds in the water; cattails, water lilies, reeds, sedges, arrowheads, smartweeds growing with their roots under water and their leaves floating or their stems out
of water - may be found, each occupying its own habitat and associated with worms, insects, spiders, fishes, birds, and other animals.

Mosses, fungi, ferns, and other moisture adapted plants live near the water. These also have their associated animals. Water samples may be poured through a fine net or screen to obtain some of the smaller forms. Mud or sand samples from the bottom may prove rich in small organisms.

In the woods, a good collecting spot is a rotting log. Underneath may live live worms, insects, millipedes, snails, salamanders, lizards, and small mammals. In and on the log may be found a great variety of insects, mostly beetles and their larvae, termites, ants, and roaches. Various species of molds and fungi are usually present, especially in late spring and early summer. If the log is carefully pulled apart different kinds of small animals and their habitats may be found; some of these are tiny, and a hand lens or reading glass will be useful. If some of the finer material is put in a jar and examined under a microscope, many protozoa and other microorganisms may be seen.


1. Start promptly at the time scheduled.

2. Stop whenever there is something important to be seen, whether or not this was on the schedule (within the limits of the available time).

3. Be sure that everyone sees and hears. The leader may carry a pointer, or in case of evening trips, a focusing flashlight. Sometimes he can point to the object of attention by reflecting a beam of light from a small mirror. Sometimes an assistant can point out the object of attention while the leader is discussing it. In the case of large groups, a portable loud speaker can be highly beneficial.

4. Encourage participation of the students in the activities on the trip. Ask them to be on the lookout for unusual types of plants or plant growth, signs of the presence of animals, effects of cultivation, and other changes brought about by living things, or by natural forces, such as wind and running water. Younger children may play detective by looking for nests, galls, burrows, tracks, droppings, pellets, tooth marks, claw marks, hoof prints, partially eaten leaves, and various other evidences that animals are or have been present.

5. Name plants and animals by indirection. Do not say "Children, there is a barnswallow." Rather, ask the children to note what kind of wings the bird has, the shape of its tail, how it flies, the colors on various parts of its body, and other questions which will lead the children themselves to arrive at the conclusion that the bird is a barn swallow.

6. Avoid the use of "always" and "never." When the leader has been calling attention to a kingbird darting from its perch, catching an insect, and returning to its perch, has explained its insect eating habits and has added, "The kingbird never feeds on the ground," and when at that moment the kingbird flies down to the middle or the road, picks up a dead grasshopper and returns to its perch, much of the effect of that trip is probably lost. It would have been better to say that kingbirds "usually feed on the wing" or that they "seldom feed on the ground." Variability is the one invariable thing about life, and field trips offer excellent opportunities for observing this variability.

7. Keep the group together as much as possible; it is sometimes necessary to go single file and to stay on a narrow trail in order to avoid damage to the plants under observation. But even then the line should be kept as short as possible. Sometimes it is possible to reverse the line so that those who were bringing up the rear are now near the leader, and vice versa. Sometimes an assistant will be available to bring up the rear and sometimes those near the end of the line may be asked to watch for things which those at the beginning of the line may have missed.

8. Arrange for stops, as frequently as the size of the group permits. Some time is lost in getting started and getting the group together for the next stop. If the group is large this lost time may become too big a faction of the total available time. In any case there should be some stops during which conversation may be carried on easily, new problems posed, questions answered, and advance notice given concerning the things to be seen next.

9. Watch the time. Unless the field trip starts and stops on time it will lose some of its effectiveness.

10. On a long trip extending over more than one day, arrange a general meeting of the group during the evening of each day spent in the field. Unless this is done much of the effectiveness of the long trip will be lost. Such a meeting will be the time to pass around the specimens picked up by various individuals, and if there are Polaroid cameras in the group, to pass around pictures that have been taken. This is the time to look up some of the answers to questions which could not readily be answered in the field. It goes without saying that on any trip last ing more than a day, some kind of field library should be carried. If the trip extends over several days, it may be well to arrange a rotating seating schedule, so that everyone gets to know everyone else and no "cliques" develop.

If the field group is an organized class, the evening of each day may be the time for a review of the day's activities ending in a short test , which mayor may not be counted for grading purposes. This will be the time to compile lists of specimens taken or birds seen during the day, and make necessary corrections and additions to the day's notes.

11. If concluding remarks are necessary or appropriate, they should be made somewhat before the end of the trip. Any such summation should be short and should merely point out highlights. Once the group has come to an end and the participants are back at the starting point, they are not in any mood for concluding remarks.


This depends much upon the type of trip involved; if it is a one-shot affair such as a trip associated with a science convention it is likely that nothing will or can be done. If the trip is a part of a class activity, it is often quite appropriate to devote parts of several of the following meetings of the class to various aspects of the trip. Following are some suggestions, any or all of which may apply to anyone specific trip.

KSN - Vol 18, No 4 - Field Trips for the 70's

Sand dune, Stafford County.

KSN - Vol 18, No 4 - Field Trips for the 70's

You need not go far; this picture, taken through a living room window during a light snowfall, shows house sparrows, juncos, and robins in a winter habitat.

KSN - Vol 18, No 4 - Field Trips for the 70's

The changing rural scene.

1. Review the highlights of the trip, pointing out the aspects which were highly important to some phase of the subject and others which may have been equally interesting but were of less importance.

2. Show pictures taken on the trip, or on a previous similar trip. These may be snapshots, color transparencies, Polaroid pictures, or drawings, as well as movies.

3. Identify specimens collected. Do not collect just for the sake of collecting, but only when collecting is feasible and appropriate. Collecting should ordinarily not be haphazard, but have some clear relationship to the aims of the field trip. In any case, any specimen collected should be identified as far as possible. In some in stances identification to orders or families is as far as one can go; in other cases complete genus and species identification is possible.

4. Get the reactions of the field group to the trip. What features do they think were of most value to them? What, if any, did they consider of little value1 What would they change if they were taking the same trip again?

5. Make sure the students understand something of the larger picture of which the trip was a part. On this point let us quote from a paper by Stanley D. Roth, Jr., who was highly field-oriented while a student at Emporia State and has been a thoroughly successful field trip leader in his career as biology teacher in Lawrence High School, Lawrence, Kansas. Roth says in part: "It is obvious that the student will learn something about water treatment if he visits a sewage disposal plant and that he will learn about marine ecology if he visits a sea shore area, but what about the 'extras'? If the above suggestions have been carefully followed through, the teacher will find his students with a greater maturity and sense of responsibility. They will have learned a degree of self-reliance and received organizational training and experience. The students will have an aesthetic feeling for what they have seen and done. They will have a better understanding of how to get along with other people-away from the parents and in close association with their peers and, hopefully, with people of high moral character and good value judgments. It seems that these 'extras' of the field tripping experience are as important - or perhaps more important - than the objective knowledge that they might gain. But, these outcomes cannot be realized if the teacher is not seriously interested in providing the best type of learning situation he can for his students, and in putting forth effort to meet their needs and objectives."


1. Study beforehand as many aspects of the trip and its significance as possible.

2. Take lots of notes and go over them immediately after the trip, making any desirable additions and corrections. In many cases snapshots or sketches may help to make the notes more meaningful.

3. Ask lots of questions, and if you don't get them all answered, keep asking the questions anyway.

4. Keep your attention focused on the trip leader and stay as close to him as the general organization of the group and courteous behavior permits.

5. Keep a scrapbook covering not only the field trip but related activities as well.

6. If specimens were collected, go over them from time to time, noting particularly the relationship between the specimens and the aims of the field trip.


1. Keep records, noting particularly the things that prove successful and the things that prove unsuccessful.

2. Observe the techniques or other field trip leaders, particularly those who are of recognized ability.

3. Take advantage of guided tours whenever you can. When you are in a National Park, try to visit with the ranger naturalists.

4. Attend a summer camp or nature camp. Field trips are usually a major part of educational camps.

5. Build up a library of books, bulletins, clippings and other publications on field trips.

6. Explore as fully as you can the field possibilities in the community in which you teach or in which you expect to lead field groups.

7. Get suggestions from field groups you conduct asking for constructive criticism of the trip. These can be obtained by having the field trip participants fill out an evaluation form, or in an informal discussion meeting. In either case, the evaluation should be made as soon as poss ible after the completion of the trip.


Maps may be useful or even necessary, both in planning a field trip and on the trip. Many of these can be obtained free, as for example the gasoline company maps given to customers at service stations. Simple maps can be drawn, beforehand or even while a field trip is in progress.

The official highway map of the State Highway Commission of Kansas shows the state lakes and parks, Federal reservoirs, and roadside parks. Most other states publish official maps showing points of special interest. In Kansas some of the roadside parks are little more than picnic tables, but others are fair-sized areas with grasses, trees, and shrubbery, and with ample opportunity for collecting, surveying, photography, and nature study activities of many kinds.

For various types of field trips and outdoor study within the state, a set of Kansas county maps can be a special convenience. The State Highway Commission of Kansas has available maps of all the 105 counties. These maps come in two sizes, with different scales. The large maps (which are too large for convenient carrying) are on a scale of one half inch to the mile. The small maps, which can be punched and carried conveniently in an 8 1/2 x 11 inch folder or notebook, have a scale of one fourth inch to the mile. The accompanying figures show the actual sizes of portions of the maps. The large-scale maps show more details, and more can be written on them. The smaller ones are easily carried in a notebook but still large enough for many notations. Notations of all sorts can be made directly on the maps. Field trip routes can be marked, with favorable collecting places indicated. Good places for group or class observation can be marked.

The maps show the range, township and section numbers, as well as many kinds of natural and artificial landmarks. Examples are highways, railroads, cities and towns, oil wells and tanks, stockyards, radio stations, air fields, and cemeteries, as well as rivers and their main tributaries, intermittent streams, reservoirs, dams, lakes and ponds.

KSN - Vol 18, No 4 - Field Trips for the 70's

KSN - Vol 18, No 4 - Field Trips for the 70's

The upper map shows more details and provides more space for writing, but covers only one fourth as many square miles as the lower map of the same size. On the upper scale (1/2 inch per mile) the map of Lyon County measures 19 x 31 inches; on the lower scale (1/4 inch per mile) only 8 1/2 x 11 inches. The original of the larger map has the streams printed in blue ink, which does not show up on the black-and-white engraving.

The small maps cost 10¢ each, or $10.00 for the entire set of 105 maps; the large ones 35¢ each, or $35.00 for the entire set. Address the State Highway Commission of Kansas, State Office Building, Topeka, Kansas, 66601.

The Forestry, Fish, and Game Commission, Pratt, Kansas, supplies free a small map showing all the state parks, lakes and areas under their jurisdiction. This map and list are printed on an 8 1/2 x 11 sheet which fits conveniently into a notebook.


The following partial list will call attention to some of the useful items that are often overlooked. It also illustrates the wide variety of things one may need or use on a field trip. Because there are many kinds of trips, the leader must plan carefully for each one. He should try to avoid carrying unnecessary things, but he must not get caught out in the field with some essential items missing. Knowing what to take along requires experience and careful planning. It also helps a lot to have at hand the records of previous trips.

BAGS, of muslin or other cloth, for carrying lizards, snakes, turtles; should be made with drawstring or tape that insures tight closing.

BOOTS or wading shoes; one should not wade barefoot in ponds or roadside ditches because of danger of stepping on pieces of sharp metal or broken glass.

CAMERA for still or motion pictures, in black-and-white or color.

COLLECTING bottles, cans, jars of various sizes.

DIP NET or tow net for collecting water life. (Insect nets should not be used for this purpose.)

FIELD GLASSES (binoculars) for observing distant objects, particularly for bird watching.


INSECT NET, killing jars, small cages or jars with perforated lids.

"LIBRARY" - a convenient carrier for the books, notebooks, maps, and reference material to be carried along.

LIGHT METER, for noting difference in light intensities in shade and sunlight, decreasing intensity at dusk, and relationship between light intensity and temperature.

MAGNIFYING GLASS, reading glass, hand lens. (On some types of trips it may be desirable to take along a compound microscope.)

NOTEBOOK for field data.

PLANT collecting can (vasculum), digger, press.

SEINE (A "minnow seine" may be used legally; a permit is necessary for larger sizes and special types of seines.)

SPADE or trowel





Benton, A. H. and Werner, W. E. 1966. Principles of Field Biology and Ecology, McGraw Hill, New York. $10.05. Includes information on field problems, methods, and equipment, also many references.

Benton, A. H. and Werner, W. E. Manual of Field Biology and Ecology. 1965. Burgess Publishing Co., Minneapolis (spiral bdg.) $4.50. includes a number of field problems, techniques, methods, and equipment.

Comstock, Anna B. Handbook of Nature Study, Comstock Publishing Co., Ithaca , N.Y. (Various editions and prices, $2.95 to $11.00). Almost a nature encyclopedia with introductory chapter on the teaching of nature study.

Hillcourt, William. 1961. Field Book of Nature Activities, G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York, $4.95. A comprehensive list of activities, many of which are in the field, also a project index.

One of the Nature Field Books series listed below.

Neal, Ernest. 1969, Woodland Ecology, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass. $3.00, A book printed in Great Britain, descriptive but contains a number of techniques and suggestions for woodland study.

Russell, Helen Ross, 1971, Winter Search Party:

A Guide to Insects and Other Invertebrates, Thomas Nelson, Inc. New York. $4.65, Describes procedures for finding,  recognizing, collecting, housing, and studying a wide variety of common invertebrates.

Weaver, Richard L. 1959. Manual for Outdoor Laboratories, Interstate, Danville, Illinois. $1.50. Contains many investigations for outdoor areas.

Putnam's Nature Field Books, G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York, prices range from $2.75 to $5.95 each, well illustrated with photographs and drawings. Some of the most useful are:

Durand, Field Book of Common Ferns

Hausman, Field Book of Eastern Birds

Hausman, Beginner's Guide to Freshwater Life

Loomis, Field Book of Common Rocks and Minerals

Lutz, Field Book of Insects

Mathews, Field Book of American Wild Flowers

Mathews, Field Book of American Trees and Shrubs

Morgan, Field Book of Ponds and Streams

Schmidt and Davis, Field Book of Snakes

Thomas, Field Book of Common Mushrooms

Peterson Field Guide Series, Published by Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, $5.95 each, hardback. Some of the most useful are:

Peterson, A Field Guide to the Birds

Klots, A Field Guide to the Butterflies

Burt and Grossenheider, A Field Guide to the Mammals

Pough, A Field Guide to Rocks and Minerals

Murie, A Field Guide to Animal Tracks

Petrides, A Field Guide to Trees and Shrubs

Conant, A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians

The Pictured-Key Nature Series, also commonly designated as the "How to Know" series, published by William C. Brown Co., Dubuque, Iowa; available in both spiral binding and standard cloth; cost varies from $2.50 to $4.75 each, Some of the most useful are:

Jaques, How to Know the Insects

Jaques, How to Know the Trees

Jaques, Living Things - How to Know Them

Jaques, Plant Families - How to Know Them

Jaques, How to Know the Beetles

Cuthbert, How to Know the Spring Flowers

Cuthbert, How to Know the Fall Flowers

Chu, How to Know the Immature Insects

Booth, How to Know the Mammals

Pohl, How to Know the Grasses

Eddy, How to Know the Freshwater Fishes

The Golden Nature Guide Series, published by Simon and Schuster, New York, in paperback at $1.25 each. Some of the most useful for field trips:

Zim and Gabrielson, Birds

Zim and Shoemaker, Fishes

Zim and Martin, Flowers

Zim and Cottom, Insects

Zim and Hoffmeister, Mammals

Zim, Smith, and Irving, Reptiles and Amphibtans

Zim and Shaffer, Rocks and Minerals

Zim and Martin, Trees

Burnett, Fisher, and Zim, Zoology

Rhodes, Zim, Shaffer, and Perlman, Fossils: A Guide to Prehistoric Life

Shuttleworth and Zim, Non-Flowering Plants

Inexpensive paperbacks and pamphlets useful to field biology, most of them 35 cents to 95 cents. A few of the most useful are the following; new ones appear at irregular intervals.

Pearl, How to Know the Minerals and Rocks, Signet, 95 cents

Peterson, How to Know the Birds, Signet, 95 cents

Sanderson, How to Know the American Mammals, Signet, 50 cents

Hurd, How to Teach Science Through Field Studies, NSTA, 35 cents

Free publications helpful in field work:

What Have I Caught? Kansas Forestry, Fish and Game Commission, Pratt, Kansas

Your Guide to State Park Areas, Park and Resource Authority, 801 Harrison, Topeka, Kansas


The Biology Department and Physical Science Division of the Kansas State Teachers College and the Science Department of the Independence Junior College will conduct a National Science Foundation Supported In-Service Institute in Environmental Science during the 1972-73 academic year. The institute will be for 40 teachers of earth or life science. grades 7-12. Approximately 20 participants will attend each of the two attendance centers, Independence and Emporia. Enrollment will be August 26 on the KSTC campus. Six hours of graduate credit may be earned. Requests for information and application forms should be directed to either Mr. James Arnwine of the Independence Junior College or Dr. Harold Durst of the KSTC Biology Department.

BI 430, Workshop in Conservation, 3 hrs. credit.
This workshop is listed in the Summer Schedule as "off campus." It will not be offered off campus, but will be offered "on campus" if there is enough enrollment. Therefore, consider the following scheduled time in making your plans: June 5-23, 7:30-10:20 a. m., room BH 46, Clarke. If you plan on enrolling or if you have any questions, please contact Dr. Robert F. Clarke, Department of Biology, KSTC, Emporia, Kansas, 66801.

BI 459C, 659C, (Special Topic) S.W.I.M. (Sewage, Water and Industrial Microbiology). A consideration of microbiology in civic and industrial systems. The function and effects of microorganisms in sewage and water treatments plus a view of the applications of microbiology in the fermentation and pharmaceutical industries. July 10-Aug. 11.9-12 daily. Prereq.: BI 150,346 or equiv. 3 hrs. Keeling.

BI 459B, 659B. (Special Topic). Instrumentation. Biogadgets for teachers. A workshop in which participants can construct any or all of the following:

Colorimeter. Use it to measure the growth of bacteria, the amount of phosphate in water, illustrate the principles of light absorbance.

Respirometer. Sensitive enough to detect oxygen usage by insects, fresh liver tissue, yeasts, etc. Ultra-thermometer. Will detect metabolic heat from yeast suspension within five minutes, plus other applications.

Thin-layer chromatography. Separate component pigments in chlorophyll, writing fluids, other mixtures in thirty minutes.

None of the instruments cost more than $20 to construct some less. The workshop involves step-by-step procedures for building and using the instruments . . all of which are used routinely by our freshmen. This is NOT a theory-course. It is a "hands-on," "learn-from-the-beginning" workshop. June 26-July 7. 7:30-9:50 Daily. 2 hrs. Keeling.

The Kansas School Naturalist Department of Biology 
  College of Liberal Arts & Sciences 
Send questions / comments to
Kansas School Naturalist.
 Emporia State University