ABOUT THIS ISSUE
Published by: The Kansas State Teachers College of Emporia
Prepared and Issued by: The Department of Biology,
with the cooperation of the Division of Education
Editor: Robert J. Boles
Editorial Committee: James S. Wilson, Robert F. Clarke, Gilbert A. Leisman, Harold Durst
Exofficio: Dr. Edwin B. Kurtz, Head, Dept. of Biology
Online edition by: Terri Weast
The Kansas School Naturalist is sent upon request, free of charge, to Kansas teachers, school board members and administrators, librarians, conservationists, youth leaders, and other adults interested in nature education. Back numbers are sent free as long as supply lasts, except Vol. 5, No.3, Poisonous Snakes of Kansas. Copies of this issue may be obtained for 25 cents each postpaid. Send orders to The Kansas School Naturalist, Department of Biology, Kansas State Teachers College, Emporia, Kansas, 66801.
The Kansas School Naturalist is published in October, December, February, and April of each year by The Kansas State Teachers College, 1200 Commercial Street, Emporia, Kansas, 66801. Second-class postage paid at Emporia, Kansas.
"Statement required by the Act of October, 1962: Section 4369, Title 39, United States Code, showing Ownership, Management and Circulation." The Kansas School Naturalist is published in October, December, February, andApril. Editorial Office and Publication Office at 1200 Commercial Street, Emporia, Kansas, 66801. The Naturalist is edited and published by the Kansas State Teachers College, Emporia, Kansas. Editor, Robert J. Boles, Department of Biology.
* A group of KSTC students interested in bird watching. Contributors to this issue of The Kansas School Naturalist were Wally Boles, Anne Emerson, Alice Emerson, Jnmes Shields, and Mary Visser.
by The Ruddy Turnstones*
Man has been a hunter thoughout most of the many thousands of years of his existence on this earth. Not only has he hunted for food, but for furs with which to clothe his body and animals which he might bring under his control to use as beasts of burden. Hunting is deeply ingrained into his behavioral pattern - so deeply that a few hundred years of so-called civilization and modern living have only dulled, but not eradicated, this basic urge. The disappearance of the frontier and the great increase in human population have made it unfeasable, if not in many cases impossible, for most men today to take up a gun and head for the field.
There is a type of hunting, however, enjoyed by hundreds but as yet ignored by or unknown to thousands, in which man may still engage. Not only may he freely pursue this type of hunting, but few are the posted signs or restrictions to bar his forays into the field.
What is this type of hunting that is growing in popularity while the opportunities for participating in other types of hunting are decreasing? Perhaps the most commonly used descriptive term is "bird watching;" a fast-growing pastime in the United States, enjoyed by people from all walks of life. Doctors, lawyers, students, and housewives are all finding that becoming acquainted with the many birds around them can be a great deal of fun.
Bird watching can easily develop into "bird study." The latter term suggests not only finding and identifying the various birds, but close and careful observations of such things as their movements, songs, nesting, territorial and feeding behaviors, migration, and intra- and interspecific relationships. A good student of birds will assure you that to see and study some of the shyer and more secretive species will tax the skill of even the best outdoorsman.
The bite of the bird-watching bug is just as powerful, if not more so, than is the bite of the fishing or hunting bug. Serious bird watching and bird study may involve considerable expense, equipment, and a lot of travel. However, the beginner may embark upon this sport with little to no expense or previous experience. Bird lovers could care less about a person's race, age, sex, or color. His interest in these beautiful creatures is the only entrance requirement into the clan. Almost anywhere you go in the world you will find fellow bird enthusiasts. A local bird watcher can show you species that might take you days or even weeks to locate. You may return the favor when someone from another area of the country is in the bird-watching territory with which you are familiar.
Watching birds can add a new dimension to many of your outdoor experiences. Think of the adventure that walking to school, visiting the park, or just watching a shrub from your bedroom window can become if it is a continuous quest to find a new bird to add to your life list. With just a little effort vou will soon see for
yourself how exciting it is to discover a new species, or to become well acquainted with a particular bird that resides in your yard. The thrill of observing a new or rare species can be every bit as rewarding to the dedicated birder as the stalking of a large game animal, such as a deer or an elk.
A visit to the KSTC Museum will prove valuable in helping you identify the various birds you will see on your birding trips. Each species is clearly labeled, and you may listen to a tape-recorded explanation of the various exhibits while you are there, if you wish.
WHAT EQUIPMENT IS NEEDED?
Only two pieces of equipment are really necessary for the beginning birdwatcher, or for that matter the more advanced birdwatcher. These are a pair of binoculars and a good field guide to the birds. Other equipment, such as a camera, telescopic lenses, tape recorder, or a spotting scope, are nice to have but they are of little use to the beginner until he learns to identify the more commonly seen birds.
Birds are shy and easily frightened, so usually cannot be approached too closely. This makes a good pair of binoculars a necessity for serious bird watching.
The most practical type of binocular to purchase is the regular sportsman type, not opera glasses. It is a good idea to keep in mind where they will be used most and buy them to suit these conditions. In the woods, where trees and bushes may limit the view, a good-sized field is important in your binoculars; in open places such as along the beach, distance is more important so greater magnifying power is needed. Also, glasses to be used along the seashore should be corrosion resistant, so as not to be damaged by the salt water.
The large, cumbersome binoculars of past years have been largely replaced by small, compact, easily adjustable, and surprisingly economical kinds. About the only advantage the large glasses have is in their light-gathering properties, which permits them to be used on darker days, in more dense woods or earlier or later in the day than the smaller kinds.
The better all-around binoculars to buy are either 7X by 35 or 8X by 30 (the 7X and 8X stand for the amount the object is magnified, while the 30 and 35 indicate the diameter of the lens in millimeters). A satisfactory pair of binoculars of one of the above types may be purchased for between nineteen and thirty dollars. If you should wish to invest a little more, the 7X by 50 gives a brighter field of vision but is heavier and larger then the others mentioned.
Both single- and center-focus binoculars are available on the market. The center-focus types have a knob between the two eyepieces that permits a more rapid adjustment than the single-focus models, as in the later you must adjust each eyepiece separately for different distances. As birds do not normally stay in one position for any length of time, the advantage of center-focus binoculars is obvious.
Spotting scopes are especially useful when observing birds that must be studied at a considerable
distance, such as wild geese or Whooping Cranes. Bulky and expensive, they are usually purchased and used by bird-study groups or organizations, such as college ornithology classes.
A good field guide to birds is as important to the birder as is a good pair of binoculars. Most field guides are small enough to fit into a pocket or field kit.
There are actually three types of bird books that the bird watcher should include in his library. One kind is adapted for use in the field for field identification of the various species seen, the second contains a wealth of information about the birds' habits, migrations, etc., (and, because of its size, is better read and studied at home), while the third may be considered a combination of the first two types mentioned. If the beginner is going to purchase but one book at the start, the latter will probable prove the most useful and informative.
A good combination-type book to purchase for the young (under 12 or 13) beginner, or even the older beginner who knows little about birding, is entitled The Golden Nature Guide to Birds. It is one of a series of excellent little books that deals with various aspects of Nature. This book includes the more common types of birds which are found throughout the whole country. It gives tips of how to identifv the birds listed, along with colm: pictures, the range of the birds, and a short description of the birds' habits. This book is in expensive (under $1.50), and may be found in most book stores.
After you feel that you can identify many of the common birds of your area, you are ready to advance to a more detailed and inclusive book. Chandler S. Robbins' Birds of North America is favored by many. It contains everything that is needed for field identification. The range, sonogram and description of the song, accompanied by a picture of the bird, are included together and they aid in quick identification of an unknown species. The book also contains information about the art of bird watching, and each order and bird family is introduced with a short general description. The book may be used for study in the home, as well as in the field.
The thick, heavy bill tells you that the cardinal is a seedeater. Sunflower seeds in your feeder will keep him coming back again and again.
Many other excellent books are available for field and home use. Two of the better ones are by Roger Tory Peterson, A Guide to the Birds of the Eastern United States, and A Guide to the Birds of the Western United States. He has also written and illustrated additional guides to different parts of the United States, as well as to Africa and Europe. The recorded songs and calls of American birds which are valuable to listen to when studying the various books may be purchased from book or record stores for under 15 dollars. One of the best known sets is that made by the Cornell University Laboratory of Ornithology. The Audubon Society and the National Geographic Society have also published a number of very useful books for home use. Finally, for those fortunate few of us who may get the opportunity to travel abroad, or even for an enjoyable "armchair journey" in the living room, check out and study the beautifully illustrated and well written Birds of the World from your local library. A list of the more useful books, their authors, and the publishers may be found at the back of the Naturalist.**
Every student of birds should have a notebook and pencil available. Field notes are invaluable for recalling details of birding trips. You may think you will remember the numbers and species, time and date, weather conditions and locality, but after several hundred trips to a great many localities it will become next to impossible to recall the details accurately.
Bird photography is a pursuit that reguires patience, skill, and a rather large outlay in expensive cameras, telephoto and zoom lenses, etc. This activity, along with the equally difficult recording of bird calls and songs, will not be discussed in this issue of the Naturalist, but left up to the budding ornithologist to tackle and study when he has mastered some of the basic steps of bird watching.
WHERE AND HOW DO YOU LOOK FOR BIRDS?
Dilute sugar water will attract humming
Once you admit to an interest in observing and studying birds, the question arises, "Where do you look for them?" South Tanzania? Outer Mongolia? Believe it or not, one of the best places to start is right at home! Admittedly, people living in the country or the suburbs have better "hunting grounds" than do those living in the heart of the city. Even in the city, however, there are parks nearby where a surprising number of species of birds may be observed.
America is still a fine place to see birds, and the Midwest is one of the best areas. No long excursions
into unexplored and hitherto untouched regions are necessary to see a great variety of birds unknown to most people. However, if you wish to get the "feel" of such an excursion, a briar patch, a muddy slough, or a Kansas snowdrift can be just as demanding to tear, wade, or stomp through as an equatorial jungle (and once you are truly bitten by the bird bug, you will undertake such activities voluntarily!).
For the beginning bird watcher almost any yard, park, or vacant lot will have many species he has never before observed or recognized. You will be surprised at the many small, shy species that have been there all the time, but have escaped being seen, or at least identified, by the uninterested or untrained eye. Every walk, every trip becomes a challenging adventure.
Of course, there are certain areas that are more productive than others. Birds may be best seen in parks, wooded areas, or by the shores of lakes, streams, or oceans. More birds will be seen by observers who walk slowly and quietly, causing as little commotion as possible. Small groups of not over three persons have more success than large groups. Sometimes sitting quietly will let you observe species that are seldom if ever seen by a person moving around.
If you can't get to the field, bird feeders and bird baths will lure shy species out into the open where they may be observed: and will serve to hold birds in the area that they would normally pass quickly through. The retired head of the Biology Department at Kansas State Teachers College, Dr. John Breukelman, maintained a feeder for many years in his backyard within the city limits of Emporia. During this time he identified 93 different species that dropped by for a free hand out. Actually, Dr. Breukelman didn't consider it a "free hand out," but thought the birds paid him handsomely for his trouble and feed expense with their beauty and interesting behavior.
Watch for aluminum bands on the legs of birds visiting your feeder. Should you come in possession of such n banded bird (road kill, etc.) send the number on the band to the U.S. Wildlife Service in Washington, D.C. They will send you back information as to when and where the bird was banded.
However, city yards usually do not have two things that some birds must have - plenty of water and solitude. To see some species, you must visit areas that consist of woods, with a minimum of underbrush,
and an open field nearby, preferably with a stream flowing through it, or a small pond in the vicinity. Tall trees attract warblers and woodpeckers. Underbrush is the favorite area for many of the "dicky birds" - Nuthatches, Titmice, wrens, chickadees and the like. Various members of the sparrow family prefer more open areas, such as grassy or weedy fields. Open fields also attract all sorts of insects, which in turn attract all types of flycatchers. You can almost always count on the usual Meadowlarks, blackbirds, and Sparrow
Hawks. Aquatic and semiaquatic species will be pretty well limited to the areas of water, along the streams or the shores of ponds and lakes.
The most spectacular birding occurs during the migration of the warblers and waterfowl. Warblers are by far the most tricky to locate and identify, since they are shy, tiny, and comprise a large and diverse family. There is at least one warbler specific for almost every biome in North America. Often the large trees along a river or streams will be the most productive area for spotting these elusive birds.
Migrating waterfowl may usually be observed one of three places: on the water, in the air, or feeding in a grain field. They are usually cautious and alert when on the ground, making them difficult to approach. Most of them are fast fliers on the wing. The best place, then, for careful study of their behavior and characteristics is on the water, as they feel more protected there, and often swim out into the open water away from shore, where they are easily observable. On large reservoirs, however, they often light in the middle of the lake, too far away for study. In order to overcome this problem, many birders resort to the use of high-powered telescopes, or spotting scopes. Inlets, bays, and shoals often provide feeding areas, where the birds may be seen from behind shrubbery along the shore.
Most migrations take place in the spring from about mid-April to mid-June; in the fall from mid-September
into November. Bird populations are fairly fixed between these times, with the exception of hard winters, when we get an influx of northern birds. By searching areas that abound in conifers during along, cold winter, you may find Crossbills, Grosbeaks, Red-Breasted Nuthatches, Finches, and Siskins that have sought shelter among the evergreens of their natural environment.
Aside from specific habitats in your vicinity that are productive, there are certain geographic spots that are renowned for their copious bird life. For instance, most birders make at least one pilgrimage to the Cheyenne Bottoms during the migration period. The Bottoms, which are located about six miles northeast of Great Bend, Kansas, on U.S. 156, are famous for their concentrations of shorebirds, waders, and waterfowl. The Marias Des Cygnes Waterfowl Refuge, near the Kansas-Missouri border between Las Cygnes and Parker, is an excellent place for - you guessed it - waterfowl. You might also get a chance to see the rare Pileated Woodpecker, and warblers are numerous. In southwest Kansas, Morton County Waterfowl Refuge is the place to bird watch. Squaw Creek Waterfowl Refuge, just outside of Kansas in Northeast Missouri, attracts hundreds of thousands of migrating geese. It is a once-in-a-lifetime thrill to see the sky literally filled with these beautiful d birds as they leave the refuge to feed or return when through. K-Hill, near Manhattan, has some of the best warbling in the state. You should not overlook the Flint Hills Wildlife Refuge near Emporia as a good place to pursue your hobby.
The spectacular flights of waterfowl should not distract you from looking for the many shorebirds. This challenging group of birds, doing their ups-and-downs, and running along the shallow edges of lakes, marshes, and ponds on their skinny legs, may appear alike to the causal observer. Careful study, however, will reveal them to belong to many different species.
There are many groups over the country whose primary interest is in the study of birds. Perhaps the most famous is the Audubon Society, which got its start as a group of concerned naturalists who banded together to save the Snowy Egret from extinction. This is a very active organization, presenting lectures and films, and printing and distributing information of interest to all bird lovers. They welcome all those who enjoy birds and birding into their organization. The Kansas Ornithological Society has numerous active clubs over the state, and gets together each year at an annual meeting to discuss the different species of birds the members have seen during the year. Those of you living outside the state of Kansas will have no difficulty in locating an ornithological organization near your school. You may wish to invite one of the
active members in to speak to your class and show slides of local birds. He might even be able to take you on a bird walk, and introduce you to the thrill of birding.
NOW YOU ARE READY
Now that you have either talked the School Board into buying your class of good pair of binoculars, a feeder, and feed (or have earned the money through some class activity), and have prepared your field note book, you are ready to embark upon what may well prove to be a life-long hobby. The first common birds will come easy. The longer your list becomes, the harder it will be to add a new species to it. The challenge will become even greater. You will need to read more tips about bird behavior, study your manual more carefully, and increase vour skill as an outdoorsman and wildlife observer. No one has ever seen all of the birds of North America. Some serious birdwatchers, however, both amateur and professional, have seen over 600 different species. Many other watchers have life lists of 500 or more, and it is not uncommon for amateurs to identify 300 species. Building up a large life list is not the end in itself, but rather it is the accumulation of knowledge about birds, based upon wide experience and participation in this fascinating activity.
A SUGGESTED CLASS ACTIVITY
The following activity is suggested as one in which the entire class may become involved. Relatively little equipment is required, and the thrill of discovery will keep the students alert and interested.
Select a classroom window that opens out upon an open courtyard, preferably where students do not usually play. Set up a bird feeder some distance from the window. A distance of 30 feet or so works fine, as the visiting birds will be little disturbed by the students watching out the window. (One-way glass installed in the window would permit the feeder to be installed just outside the observation point, and the students would have a "close-up" view of their little feathered visitors without being seen themselves. Also, no binoculars would be needed).
On a table or window ledge inside the building, place (1) a pair of binoculars, (2) a record book, (3) a pencil, and (4) a bird guide, which the students may use to help them verify their identification of the birds visiting the feeder.
The record book should contain columns for (1) the name of the bird(s) seen, (2) the numbers of each species of bird seen, (3) the date upon which the birds were seen, (4) the time of dav the birds were seen, (5) a space for the observer's name, and (6) a space for "remarks." For example, a note could be made of the weather conditions on the dav the birds were observed, which species were the most aggressive around the feeder, any unusual activity by the visiting birds, etc.
Someone should be assigned the duty of seeing that the feeder is filled each morning with mixed bird feed. Be sure that the feed mixture includes sunflower seeds and milo.
The data collected in the record book may be used later for several class activities, especially the constuction and use of graphs. Graphs may be constructed showing such things as:
(1) the numbers of species that visited the feeder each month during the year,
(3) the different species that visited during the various types of weather ( clear and sunny, cloudy, snowy and cold, etc.),
(4) the numbers of birds that visit the feeder at different times of the school day.
The data may be studied to decide which species of bird is the most aggressive about the feeder. Which species is second in aggressiveness? Which species is lowest on the "peck order"? Try to arrange a hierarchy of dominance among the bird visitors.
How many different species visited your feeder during the year? Compare the numbers from one year to the next. Does your feeder become more popular with time - that is, do the birds seem to communicate
to other birds that there is a "goody" place available in your school yard?
A FIELD ACTIVITY INVOLVING DATA COLLECTING
The following activity may be used from the lower grades through junior high, and involves careful observation, data recording, and data interpretation.
Teach the students to recognize five to ten of the common birds found in the vicinity of your school (e.g., Robin, English Sparrow, Starling, Pigeon, Mourning Dove, Bluejay, Cardinal, Mocking Bird, etc.) Have those students who walk a regular route to and from school keep careful records of the kinds and numbers of birds from the list you have chosen seen each day on their way to school in the morning and on their way back home in the afternoon. Be sure the route is the same each day. Mimeographed check sheets win make the data recording easier and more uniform. Have each student record his or her findings each day on a large chart on the wall. Be sure to record the date for each record placed on the chart.
A great blue heron rookery makes a good
Before the close of the school year have the class analyze the data you have collected. From these data you should: (1) be able to tell which birds are migratory and which are permanent residents in your area, (2) be able to tell at what time of the fall the migrants started to leave your area, and when they started to return in the spring, and (3) which birds were only transients, passing through your area on their way north or south. If your school operates a summer session, records kept on through the summer would help in answering the latter question. Though the reason may not be evident from your data, try to make inferences as to why some birds in your area are found in greater numbers than are others.
A LITTLE RESEARCH PROBLEM
The following problem was used by a grade school student as her blue-ribbon science fair entry a few years ago. Like all good projects, it started as a simple observation and an unanswered question. Observing that the birds visiting the bird feeder in the back yard appeared to choose some types of grains over others from the mixed food being offered, she decided to run a series of experiments to see which type of food was most preferred by the birds that came to the feeder.
She obtained ten different kinds of grains or seeds for her problem. Equal amounts of each of these types offered were placed in containers and arranged in a circle on the ground near the feeder each morning. Each evening the containers were gathered up and the amount of food consumed that day measured and the results recorded. The experiment was run each day for two weeks. The total results were then summarized, the ten types of food arranged in order of preference by the birds.
Can you give some good reasons why it was more scientific to run the experiment for at least two weeks rather than one or two days? Have the students in your class bring as many kinds of food as they can (eg., milo, corn, wheat, oats, barley, sunflower seed, rice, soybeans, millet, etc.) and run the above experiment, carefully recording your results. After at least two weeks or more, summarize your results and prepare a
graph depicting what you found about the preference of birds for the various types of foods. Do all birds like the same kind of grains? Are some almost worthless as bird feed? Can you use these data to help you decide what kinds of grains are best to put in your feeder if you wish to attract the largest number of birds?
MAGAZINES FOR BIRDWATCHERS
International Wildlife. National Wildlife Federation. 1412 16th Street. N.W. Washington, D.C. 20026
National Wildlife. National Wildlife Federation. 1412 16th Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20026
Audubon. National Audubon Society. 1130 Fifth Avenue, New York, New York. 10028
RECORDS OF BIRD SONGS AND CALLS
Allen, A. Arthur. Bird Songs of Garden, Woodland, and Meadows. National Geographic Society. 1964. (A companion for Song and Garden Birds of North America.)
Kellogg, Peter Paul. Bird Sounds of Marsh, Upland and Shore. National Geographic Society. 1965. (A companion to Water, Prey and Game Birds of North America.)
Kellogg, Peter Paul, Arthur Allen - in collaboration with Roger Tory Peterson). A Field Guide to Bird Songs of Eastern and Central North America. Houghton Mifflin Company. Boston, Massachusetts. (Peterson Field Guide Series).
SELECTED FIELD GUIDES AND READINGS FOR BIRDWATCHERS
Allen, Arthur A. Stalking Birds with Color Camera. National Geographic Society, Washington, D.C. 1961.
Allen, Robert Porter. The Giant Golden Book of Birds. Golden Press. New York, New York. 1962.
Cruickshank, Allen and Helen. 1001 Questions Answered About Birds. Dodd, Mead. 1958.
Gilliard, E. Thomas. Living Birds of the World. Doubleday and Company, Inc. Garden City, New York. 1958.
Kieran, John. An Introduction to Birds. Doubleday and Company, Inc. Garden City, New York. 1965.
Peterson, Roger Tory. A Field Guide to Birds. Houghton Mifflin. 1947.
Peterson, Roger Tory. The Birds. Time, Inc. 1970.
Pearson, T. Gilbert, et al. Birds of America. Garden City Publishing Company, Inc. Garden City, New York. 1942.
Robbins, Chandler S., Bertel Brunn, and Herbert S. Zim. Birds of North America. Golden Press. New York, New York.
Wallace, George J. An Introduction to Ornithology (Second Edition). The McMillan Company. New York. New
Welty, Joel Carl. The Life of Birds. W. B. Saunders, Company. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 1962.
Wetmore, Alexander. Song and Garden Birds of North America. National Geographic Society. Washington,
D.C. 1964. (Record of bird songs included).
Wetmore, Alexander. Water, Prey, and Game Birds of North America. National Geographic Society. Washington, D.C. 1961.
Zim, Herbert S., Ira N. Gabrielson. Birds - A Guide to the Most Familiar American Birds. Golden Press. New York, New York. 1956.
The following checklist was prepared for beginning birdwatchers. It contains 281 of the recorded Kansas birds. Rare and extinct species have not been included. The list gives the frequency with which the bird is found, the part of the state in which it occurs, the habitat the bird prefers, and the time of year in which it can be found.
Below is an explanation of they symbols. * - the bird has a record of nesting in the state of Kansas. Frequency: C - common - usually found when conditions are right. U - uncommon - less often found even when conditions are right. Conditions are habitat, part of state, and time of year. Part of state: S - statewide; E - from Cowley, Morris and Washington counties east; W - from Comanche, Rush and Phillips counties west; C - the area between the E and W sectors. A symbol in parentheses following a statewide symbol indicates that the species is most likely found in this sector. Habitat: R - riparian areas near of associated with water (rivers, streams, swamps, lakes, thickets, etc.); Time of occurrence: PR - permanent resident - present all year round; SR - summer resident - present all summer; WR - winter resident - present all winter; T - transient - passes through the area during migration in the fall and spring.
|*Great Blue Heron||C||S||R||SR|
|Little Blue Heron||C||S||R||T|
|*Black-crowned Night Heron||C||S||R||T|
|*Yellow-crowned Nigh Heron||U||S||R||T|
|Blue Goose / Snow Goose||C||S||R||T|
|*Greater Prairie Chicken||C||E||G||PR|
|*Lesser Prairie Chicken||U||W||G||PR|
|American Golden Plover||U||E-C||R||T|
|*Great Crested Flycatcher||C||S(E)||W||T-SR|
|*Eastern Wood Pewee||C||E||W||T-SR|
|*Western Wood Pewe||C||W||W||T-SR|
|*Long-billed Marsh Wren||U||S-E||R||T-SR|
|*Short-billed Marsh Wren||U||E||R||T|
|*Black and White Warbler||C||S||W||T|
|Black-throated Green Warbler||U||E||W||T|
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Kansas School Naturalist.
|Emporia State University|