More About Biologists and Their Work
ABOUT THIS ISSUE
Published by: The Kansas State Teachers College of Emporia
Prepared and Issued by: The Department of Biology,
with the cooperation of the Division of Education
Editor: Robert J. Boles
Editorial Committee: James S. Wilson, Robert F. Clarke, Gilbert A. Leisman, David F. Parmelee, Carl W. Prophet
Exofficio: Dr. Edwin B. Kurtz, Head, Dept. of Biology
Online edition by: Terri Weast
The Kansas School Naturalist is sent upon request, free of charge, to Kansas teachers, school board members and administrators, librarians, conservationists, youth leaders, and other adults interested in nature education. Back numbers are sent free as long as supply lasts, except Vol. 5, No.3, Poisonous Snakes of Kansas. Copies of this issue may be obtained for 25 cents each postpaid. Send orders to The Kansas School Naturalist, Department of Biology, Kansas State Teachers College, Emporia, Kansas, 66801.
The Kansas School Naturalist is published in October, December, February, and April of each year by The Kansas State Teachers College, 1200 Commercial Street, Emporia, Kansas, 66801. Second-class postage paid at Emporia, Kansas.
"Statement required by the Act of October, 1962: Section 4369, Title 39, United States Code, showing Ownership, Management and Circulation." The Kansas School Naturalist is published in October, December, February, andApril. Editorial Office and Publication Office at 1200 Commercial Street, Emporia, Kansas, 66801. The Naturalist is edited and published by the Kansas State Teachers College, Emporia, Kansas. Editor, John Breukelman, Department of Biology.
Cover Picture: Miss Marilyn Bell, a junior at Emporia Senior High School, is shown at the KSTC electron microscope. She is studying the relationships between fat and the adrenal gland.
More About Biologists and Their Work
This is the second of two issues of The Kansas School Naturalist devoted to some of the fields of specialization that may be taken in the field of Biological Science.
Have you ever wondered what the world would look like if you were extremely small? What would a single cell look like if you could step inside of it? One way to find out, without having to miniaturize people, is to magnify a cell thousands of times with an electron microscope.
An ordinary light microscope with an oil immersion objective will magnify objects only about 1,000 times. An electron microscope, on the other hand, can magnify objects 100,000 times or more. Using this instrument, biologists have observed the different types of "machinery" that exist in the cytoplasm of a cell. They can actually see where proteins are made, where energy is produced, where gland cells package their secretions, and so on. Hundreds of viruses, too small to be seen with a light microscope, can be seen inside the cell they would ultimately destroy in the course of a disease. The structure of chromosomes, and even of genes, is also being probed with electron microscopes.
Because of the very high magnifications involved, electron microscopists must be extremely careful in preparing tissues or cells for viewing. A small error will be magnified just as much as the cell, and dirt magnified 100,000 times is very dirty! Tissues are first embedded in a hard plastic and then cut with a very sharp piece of broken glass in a special instrument known as an ultramicrotome. The tissues must be cut into slices no more than 100 mu (0.000,000,4 inches ) thick. One thousand such sections stacked on top of each other would be only about as thick as this page. Mastery of the ultramictrotome and the thin-sectioning technique is one of the most difficult phases of electron microscopy.
At KSTC we recently acquired a Japanese-made, Hitachi, electron microscope. It is a simplified version of larger, more expensive models, and many students, undergraduate as well as graduate, have learned to
operate it. It has a magnification range of 1,000 to 124,000 times and under optimum conditions it can
distinguish between two objects less than 1 mu (0.000,000,004 inches) apart . We also have an ultramicrotome and all other equipment needed to prepare biological specimens for observation in the electron microscope.
Many faculty members and students are currently using the microscope in their classes or research. Dr. Helen McElree is directing a number of students who are studying viruses with the electron microscope. They hope to learn something of the intracellular events which lead to viral multiplication in cells of animals susceptible to a virus, as compared to what takes place when the same virus enters a non-susceptible cell. Such information may help to explain why, for example, people have small pox whereas dogs do not.
Dr. Katherine Smalley and her students are using the microscope in their study of nervous systems. They
believe that a better understanding of how a nervous system is put together will lead to a better understanding of how it works.
Dr. Robert Smalley is studying the development of fatty tissue with the aid of the electron microscope. This
work may contribute to our knowledge of how and why people get fat. Dr. Smalley, a member of the Chemistry Department, and Mr. Dale Delfs, of the Biology Department, are responsible for the "care and
grooming" of the electron miscroscope.
The miscroscope has also been used by a geneticist, Dr. H. Michael LeFever, a mycologist, Dr. Richard P. Keeling, and a botanist, Dr. Bernadette Menhusen, for research and teaching in their respective fields. It is hoped that even more students and faculty members will be using the electron miscroscope in the future.
|A number of faculty members serve on the Electron Microscope Committee. Dr. Michael LeFever, a faculty member since 1965, is a geneticist by training, with special interest in the fine structure and recombination in Drosophila and mammalian cytogenetics. Dr. Arlene Ulrich, who joined the KSTC faculty in 1968, is a microbiologist with special interest in phage and bacterial hybrids. She is also a registered medical technologist. Dr. Robert Smalley is actually a member of the physical science staff, but serves as an active member of the committee. His research interest is in the chemistry and function of brown fat deposits in small mammals. Dr. Katherine Smalley, the second member of a highly successful husband-wife team, also serves on the committee. Her special research interests were discussed in an earlier issue of the Naturalist. Mr. Dale Delfs has been delegated the responsibility of the operation and maintenance of the electron microscope, a duty requiring considerable skill and training. He also serves as chairman of the committee.|
Electron micrograph of rat heart muscle. The filaments labelled "fibers" make the heart muscle contract. Energy is supplied by the oval-shaped mitochondria. Preparation by Gerald Ohmes (Junior, KSTC). Magnification: 8000 times
Since the establishment of the cell theory by Schleiden and Schwann in the 1800's, there has been a remarkable advance in our knowledge of the basic functioning of the cell. No longer is it considered a simple "bag" containing a few chromosomes plus perhaps some food droplets. We now know the cell as an intricate and complex unit containing many functional entities within itself. Cell physiology is the study of life activities of cells. These life activities include (1) nutrition and metabolism, including the uptake of food and oxygen for the release of energy with subsequent elimination of waste products, (2) response to a changing environment, (3) growth, and (4) cell reproduction and differentiation. Basic to these life processes is the concept of control. The highly ordered scheme within the biological system necessitates precision of control over the various activities. Without this control, the other fundamentals are meaningless.
There have been two technological developments which have provided the main impetus for the study of structure and function of the cell. The development of the electron microscope enabled a magnification and
resolution previously unknown with the light microscope. The electron microscope, or EM as it is known to its users, utilizes a wave of electrons instead of the usual wavelengths of light. The second development was the perfection of the high-speed centrifuge or ultracentrifuge. Tissue cells are first ruptured or homogenized with a tissue grinder. This homogenate is then centrifuged at increasingly greater speeds and hence greater forces of gravity. Since the subcellular units, or organelles, have different densities they are
fractionally separated at these different speeds and isolated as a pellet at the bottom of the tube. This pellet can then be resuspended in an appropriate aqueous medium and the isolated organelles examined using a variety of techniques.
Using these methods we have learned a great deal about the microanatomy of the cell: the mitochondria, chloroplasts in plant cells, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum. Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, centrosomes and an assortment of vesicles. plastids or inclusions. There are available several inexpensive paperback books which provide an excellent discussion of the function of these bodies (e.g. John H. Morrison. Functional Organelles. Reinhold Publishing Corp. 1966).
Simply knowing what a certain organelle looks like does us little good unless we also know something about its function. Once the organelles are isolated, they are subjected to biochemical examination such as
electrophoresis, chromatography, the study of respiration rates, determination of protein synthesizing capacity and many others. We have available at K.S.T .C. most of these items which allows us this study.
Mr. Gaylen Neufeld joined the KSTC faculty
Dr. Helen McElree came to the KSTC faculty
Although we know a great deal about the cell, there still remain many challenges. Included among these challenges is a greater comprehension of molecular interaction, the specifics of energy transfer and
transformation, mechanism of adaptation to change, how a cell exerts control over its processes, and the effect chemical and biological environments have upon the functional capacity of the cell.
The field of cell physiology is an exciting and promising area for the biologist. It does, however, require more than just a general knowledge of plants and animals. Students wishing to enter this field should provide themselves with a good background in physics, chemistry and mathematics and at an early stage.
Beyond the range of man's eyesight exists a complex and fascinating world of living forms collectively referred to as microorganisms. This microscopic world includes such organisms as fungi, bacteria, protozoa and viruses. By using modern and sophisticated techniques and instruments biologists are studying the "life styles" of these microorganisms and are discovering how they cause dangerous diseases when they infect plants and animals and how they perform highly useful functions as important
components of ecosystems.
Of greatest significance, however, is the fact biologists have found that because of their unique characteristics. bacteria and viruses can be used more advantageollsly than any other form of life to study secrets locked into the structure of DNA molecules and the nature of the biochemical reactions which occur in cells that make life possible. Recent developments in research using microorganisms have led biologists to predict that within a few years life may be crea ted in a test tube, the cause of cancer may be revealed, and man will be able to manipulate the genetic make-up of cells.
At Kansas State Teachers College interested and qualified biology students are involved in microbiological research. Many of these students are concerned with a special area of Microbiology called Immunology. Immunology is a highly specialized branch of science which deals with the intricate interactions of infectious agents and the hosts which they attack as well as the changes which occur in
the host's body with the development of immunity. Using both pathogenic (disease-causing) bacteria and viruses, KSTC students are attempting to learn how certain cells of the body search out the pathogenic agent and attempt to destroy it before it can cause sickness or death. To do this, cells called macrophages are carefully removed from
laboratory animals and kept a live in test tubes with cell culture techniques. Once the mammalian cells are established in the test tubes, they are infected with bacteria or viruses and the ensuing events are observed to determine whether the infection destroys the
cells or the cells survive by successfully combating the invading parasites. By varying the experimental conditions which alter the delicate balance which exists between the infecting agent and the mammalian cells, much can be learned about the factors which control the survival of one or the other. As more and more information is accumulated as a result of this kind of research scientists will not only have a better understanding of the host-parasite relationship but may be able to devise better methods of treating or preventing diseases caused by microorganisms.
Mammalogy is the branch of zoology which deals with mammals and ecology is concerned with relationships between organisms and their environment. Although mammals comprise less than one-half of one per-cent of approximately one million kinds of animals now living on earth, their importance and influence greatly overshadows most other kinds. Man and most of his domesticated animals are mammals, and because many are large as well as numerous they exercise a commanding influence on the environment.
Man has the unique ability to alter the environment to suit his immediate needs and most of our current pollution problems are the direct result of such alterations. But enough about man here; anthropologists and sociologists have their work cut out for them in trying to determine the nature of man. Mammalian ecologists work with the less difficult species.
Dr. Dwight Spencer is a mammaloglst, specializing in the genetics and behavior of
Students at K.S.T.C. who are interested in mammals may, in order to further their interest, enroll in courses such as Natural History of Vertebrates, Biology Projects in Mammalogy, or Mammalogy. Ecologically oriented courses such as Biology of Populations and Community Ecology provide basic ecological principles and concepts. Mammalogy and Ecology courses involve considerable field work, therefore, students who enjoy working out-of-doors find these classes most interesting and informative.
The following types of studies are representative of those undertaken by mammalian ecology students in recent years:
1. effects of periodic burning of grassland on the small mammals living therein,
2. homing ability of white-footed mice, wood rats, and other small mammals,
3. effects of crowding at various densities on cotton rats,
4. rate at which small mammals reinvade areas from which their populations were decimated,
5. seasonal and yearly fluctuations of local small mammal populations,
6. relationships bet.ween plant cover and kinds of small mammals in an area,
7. behavioral isolation between two types of closely related small mammals,
8. daily and seasonal movements of small mammals within their home ranges.
Students with special interests in mammalian ecology may prepare themselves for the teaching profession, work for government agencies dealing with conservation and wildlife, work for organizations concerned with public health, carryon research for laboratories which manufacture pesticides or food and drugs for domestic animals, or among other things, become professional nature photographers or writers. Most of these vocations require education and training beyond the basic four-year college program leading to the bachelor's degree so plan ahead.
The work of a plant systematist is varied and interesting and usually includes both field and laboratory phases. A systematist not only identifies plants, but in addition, tries to incorporate all available knowledge of plants or plant populations into an organized scheme. The plant groups studied by plant systematists
are algae (the study of which is called phycology), fungi (mycology), mosses and liverworts (bryology), ferns (pteridology), as well as the gymnosperms and flowering plants.
Research and study of organisms may be categorized as "applied" (of direct benefit to man or his world) or as " pure" (usually not of direct benefit). Most of the botanical studies at KSTC would be considered pure research but, of course, ideas, information and principles found in pure research are often utilized by
workers in the fields of applied science.
Sometimes a systematist makes a study of the plants from a certain geographic area. These may be natural ones such as the Rocky Mountains or politically defined ones such as a county or state. In this type of study (usually called a flora) the worker tries to collect at least one of each kind of plant in the specified
area and to prepare a check-list and /or key to the plants of this area. Has anyone prepared a flora of your county?
Many different tools are utilized by a systematist in his study of plant populations. In his study of plants, he often must collect, preserve, label and store them in insect-free herbarium cases for future use and reference. These herbarium specimens are used as a part of his " reference library" as well as books and
journals which may provide important facts and information. In addition, microscopes, hand lenses and many other invaluable tools are used in the study of plants.
Often a systematist chooses a particular taxonomic group (taxa-genus, species, etc.) of plants to study in detail. This usually involves a comprehensive study of as many specimens, either borrowed or collected personally (if possible). Often included in taxonomic studies are such areas as:
1. Geographic Distribution - (Total area over which the taxa occur) In studying the geographic distribution, the systemist often asks himself certain questions about his taxa such as: What is the distribution of the taxa and seemingly closely related groups? Are the plants native in these areas or were they brought by man as cultivars or as weeds? Do soil types seem to be limiting the range of the taxa?
2. Ecology - (the study of the taxa in relation to their total environment) Typical questions asked by a systematist are: In what specific type of environment do the taxa grow? Which plants are growing in close proximity or association (biotic factors) with the taxa being studied? Do these same plants occur in all
areas with the study plants? What seems to be the influence of other plants or animals on the taxa being studied? What climatic or physical factors (abiotic) seem to influence the taxa? What factors seem to influence or affect growth, flowering, and reproduction in these plants?
3. Embryology - (the study of the developing embryo) Questions asked may include: Do all of the embryonic plants of the taxa develop in a similar manner? Do they all develop at the same rate under controlled and identical environments?
4. Morphology - (the study of gross plant structure) Some questions often investigated may be: In what ways are the external plant parts of the taxa similar? What variation occurs in these structures in populations from different or similar geographical areas? For example: Are the flowers always a certain
color or size? Do these characters remain constant when grown under uniform conditions such as exist in an experimental garden or greenhouse?
5. Anatomy - (the study of the cells, tissues, and tissue systems) Some systematists study the internal structure in great detail and ask: Are the cells or tissues of different taxa similar? For example, are the epidermal cells of the leaves alike in all respects or do they differ significantly in size, shape, and or color?
If two different basic epidermal patterns occur in closely related groups and plants with an intermediate pattern exists between them, what might this suggest about the population?
Dr. Bernadette Menhusen has her special
Dr. James Wilson, a staff member since
6. Transplant Studies - (growing plants under uniform conditions ) Plants and /or seeds from different geographic areas are transplanted to an experimental garden or greenhouse where they are grown under
uniform environmental conditions. There the systematist may seek answers to the following questions: Do these transplants from different areas possess the same characters as flower color and shape', size, and blooming date as the populations from which they were originally taken or do they now possess differences which may be attributable to this new environment? Can hybrids be produced (in the garden or greenhouse) between these populations taken from different geographic areas? If so, is there a difference in the percentage of seed germination between that of the hybrids and their parents? Will these hybrid plants produce flowers, fruit and viable seed? Can successful back crosses be made between the hybrids and the parental plants?
7. Cytology and Cytogenetics - (the study of cells and their contents, particularily the chromosomes) A systematist may seek answers to questions as: Do all taxa in the group studied have the same chromosome number? Do the chromosomes appear to be similar in size and shape? If hybrid populations
occur, are there differences in number and/or morphology of the chromosomes?
8. Phytochemistry - (the study of chemical components of the plant body ) The chemical components of a taxa are often separated and identified by use of chromotography and electrophoresis. Using these techniques it is usually possible to separate and /or identify certain proteins, phenols, lipids, and various
other components. Many recent studies in the field of taxonomy have used phenol chromotography in determination of biochemical differences between populations and in the detection of hybrids. Would you
expect all taxa from the same geographic area to produce identical compounds?
It is primarily from these areas that the plant systematist obtains his knowledge about populations and expresses these in a logical classification. Usually involved in a final classification are certain theoretical data concerning the possible evolution of a group. These data may allow the systematists to accurately predict which plant or plants may be of particular value to man. For example, knowledge of this type has enabled man to select certain species of grasses, which, if crossed, will yield a hybrid plant which will have the so-called desirable characteristics of the parents. Common examples of characters selected for are disease and drought resistance, greater productivity, higher sugar and protein content and even a more pleasing color. Corn and wheat (grasses) are good examples of plants in which man has been able to utilize his knowledge of evolution in producing new and better types.
The study of animal behavior is a fairly new area as far as a scientific approach is concerned, although persons have made observations on and described the behavior of
animals from the time of Aesop. At present, however, we know only a little of the behavior of but a few species. As we learn more about the behavior of organisms. more avenues of investigation are opened. Behavior is the total of the activities of an animal - it is what it does. In the study of animal behavior, observations are made, both in the field and lab, to ascertain what the animal is doing, how he is doing it, and why he is doing it. Of course, all of the activities cannot be investigated, so after initial observation, certain parts of the behavior are selected for continued study in
depth. First, the behavior is described, then experimentation is conducted to seek the causes of this behavior and the consequences. A few of the categories of behavior that have received the most attention are ingestive (food gathering, drinking, predation), agonistic (fighting, defense, escape), and sexual (all
phases of courtship). The study of behavior may involve a study of one or more of the sense organs and their responses. It may involve the discrimination of individuals within their habitats, the social organization of the group, or the types of communication between individuals or groups. Behavior is also concerned with the learning ability of animals: What learning is, how learning is acquired, how learning affects behavior, and the types of behavior in which learning apparently plays little role.
A person who intends to work in animal behavior needs to have a broad background in the biological sciences. with the emphasis on animal s tudies: zoology, taxonomy, physiology, anatomy, endocrinology, and ecology. An understanding of basic psychology. as well as a fair grounding in the physical sciences is
essential. Most animal behavior courses depend upon the student having acquired a minimum amount of zoological knowledge before he enters class. Therefore, students very early in their course work should select those which stress animal taxonomy, physiology, and anatomy. The rewards in the field are great. Persons who have acquired knowledge in the field may become college teachers, work in behavior laboratories, be employed by federal or state governments, or may do consultant work. That there is a
burgeoning interest in the field of animal behavior is evidenced by the numerous television programs, films, and publications on the subject that have appeared lately.
Dr. Robert Clarke is a herpetologist with a
The particular interest of Dr. Robert Clarke is in the display behavior of certain lizard families. One of these families, Iguanidae, is a large assortment of lizards, with species in North, Central, and South America. It has been found that the display behavior of these lizards is species-specific. That is, although certain
displays may be generally alike in a large group of species, each display differs somewhat from one species to another and, within rather narrow limits, each individual of a species performs the display in the same way. It has been found that by filming the display of these lizards with a motion picture camera and then analyzing the film in a time-motion study, the sequence of movements of individual lizards during their species-specific display can be ascertained, variations within the species can be found, the type of display can be described, and these displays can be used for taxonomic purposes. Since the number
of species is large, and some are extremely difficult to acquire, this research will not be completed for a long time. For each of the animals studied for species-specific behavior, it has been found that each opens up new avenues to explore. For instance, in one group of lizards it has been found that the females with eggs in their bodies differ in their behavior from females that do not contain eggs. The hormonal control of the lizard is changed when the lizard contains eggs, which changes the behavior. So a whole new study can be opened to ascertain the type of hormone involved, the amounts of hormone, the physiological condition of the lizard at different limes, and the changes in behavior.
In order to study lizard behavior, approximately a dozen large enclosures have been constructed at the Ross Natural History Reservation. Here the lizards are kept out-of-doors during the warm portion of the year. They are collected alive in the field in the United States and Mexico primarily. The lizards placed in the pens interact with one another and display in the same manner they do in the field. Motion picture and still cameras are utilized by Dr. Clarke and the students involved, and these films are then analyzed either at the Reservation or in the lab on campus. A large laboratory room is provided not only for the analysis of film, but also for the storage of a large number of scientific papers on the lizards and their behavior, as well as numerous reference books. Enclosures and cages are provided for in the lab to maintain the lizards during the colder months of the year. Here. too, photographs can be taken of the lizards during the winter months and experimentation carried on.
Mr. Thomas Eddy, a staff member since
Entomology is the study of insects. This can be a complex study when one considers there are some 1,000,000 kinds of insects in the world and 85 ,000 in the United States. Entomologists, scientists who study insects, have many reasons for wanting to learn more about these little six-legged animals.
Insects cause economic losses to field crops, vegetables, fruits, flowers, trees, and shrubs by eating them, burrowing into their tissues, or by spreading destructive diseases. Others attack livestock, eat wooden buildings, clothing, stored grain, leather and carpets. One type of beetle even damages lead cable by boring into it. These losses amount to approximately 4 billion dollars annually in the United States and about 500 million dollars are spent controlling these pests each year. Insects also cause human suffering by transmitting malaria, sleeping sickness, yellow fever and typhus fever as well as being annoying.
Most entomologists work in colleges and universities, agricultural experiment stations, federal agencies, and in commercial pest control businesses.
There are many specialties in the field of entomology. Many involve some outdoor work such as surveys of insect numbers, sampling, gathering meterological data, and observing insect behavior. There may also be investigation in the laboratory where the insect's environment and other problems under investigation can be closely controlled.
Forest entomologists work to reduce insect damage to valuable timber resources. Horticultural entomologists work with gardeners and orchardists to control insects in vegetables, flowers, and fruits. Stored products entomologists work to control insects that attack grain in farm graneries, elevators, and food stored in warehouses.
Medical entomologists and livestock entomologists are interested in insects that transmit diseases, in determining their life cycles, and devising means to reduce the effect of the diseases on man and livestock. This work is exacting and requires both a knowledge of insects and medicine. These entomologists may work in any part of the world where there is an insect problem that is a threat to man.
Regulatory entomologists work at our country's border to reduce spread and block entrance of major insect pests from other countries. Entomologists are also needed to control pests in our homes, farm buildings, and businesses. They work for pest control companies and employ the latest scientific knowledge in controlling termites, cockroaches, crickets, and other pests.
Some entomologists are concerned with studies of natural enemies of insects such as bacteria, fungi, viruses. parasites, and predators. This branch of entomology, called biological control, involves the selection and propagation of these natural enemies and finally their release to control insect outbreaks. A familiar example is the control of aphids with lady bird beetles.
A few entomologists are specialists in apiculture, the management of bees. They study means to increase honey and beeswax production and seek ways to improve bee pollination of crop plants.
Insects are valuable because of their suitability for studies in basic science. Studies of insect ecology, behavior, taxonomy, physiology, and morphology give students insights into many areas of biology.
There are opportunities in teaching for people who complete M.S. or Ph.D. programs. They may choose to teach courses in entomology and related fields of biology.
Entomological investigations at KSTC have been generally of insect-plant relationships in Kansas grasslands. Special emphasis has been on ants and their role in the distribution of native grases.
The study of fishes is called ichthyology. It is a broad field involving many types of activities.
Some ichthyologists are interested in the identification of fishes. When one considers that there are more kinds of fi shes in the world than there are all other kinds of back-boned animals combined, it is easy to see that only a specialist could hope to learn to know, or identify, the great number of diverse forms and
sizes of fishes that may be collected from the streams, lakes, and oceans. Each year new species of fishes never before described are collected, studied, and named by taxonomic ichthyologists.
Fishes are valuable research animals for use in the laboratory. Most doctors have spent some time during their undergraduate days dissecting the dogfish shark. Some fishes are used in the study of heart function and cancer. The fisheries biologists may work hand-in-hand with the limnologist, using fishes as test animals in determining the effects of polluted waters upon animal life.
Fishes in the oceans provide great quantities of food for peoples of the world. Fisheries biologists from any countries must work together to determine the effects of fishing upon the fish supply of the oceans, and recommend management methods, open seasons, and catch limits so as to insure a continuous supply of food fishes from the sea.
Ichthyology is the field of specialization of
More pounds of fishes can be raised per surface acre of water than can any other kind of meat-producing vertebrate, such as pigs and cattle. With the booming population rate, increasing numbers of farmers are becoming interested in the raising of fishes for market. Fisheries biologists are in great demand for advice and counseling in this new type of farming. Much research remains to be done in this field.
Fishing is one of the finest kinds of recreation. Each year millions of people flock to our streams and lakes to fish. Maintaining satisfactory fishing in the face of such tremendous pressure taxes the skill of even the
finest fisheries biologist.
Nearly every biology laboratory and elementary classroom, as well as many homes, have one or more aquaria in which fishes are kept for the enjoyment of those observing them. The ichthyologist is frequently called upon for ideas and suggestions as to how to maintain the aquarium, what fishes to purchase, and what to do when the fishes become ill or diseased.
An Invitation to Participate In the "Young Author's Award"
From time to time the Editor of The Kansas School Naturalist receives small checks from interested subscribers who wish to help in defraying the expenses of printing and mailing the publication.
The Editor and Editorial Committee. would like to suggest the following two uses for such contributions:
1. Set up a " Young Author's Award," to be presented to the student, or students, who prepare a manuscript for an issue of The Kansas School Naturalist that is acceptable for publication. This will be a modest award, in the vicinity of ten to twenty-five dollars (depending upon the amount availaqle). Such an award will serve to stimulate, and recognize, creative writing among young people. In the past we have had issues written by college, high school, and even one by two junior high school students. We feel that many of our readers would like to feel that they had played some small part in motivating youth in this field.
2. All money over that needed for the Young Author's Award will be deposited in a special fund in the Endowment Office, and, when a sufficient amount is available, used to help defray the additional expenses of an edition in color. Kansas has many beautiful wild flowers, birds, insects, and fishes that could be featured. By paying for the color plates in advance, we can avoid the additional bookkeeping that has been involved in the very popular color issue on poisonous snakes, by Dr. Robert Clarke.
Checks may be sent to either the Editor of The Kansas School Naturalist or to The Naturalist Fund of the KSTC Endowment Association. Such a contribution is deductible on your income tax return.
MEETINGS OF INTEREST TO SCIENCE TEACHERS
October to-Kansas Association of Biology Teachers, Garden City.
October 21-24-National Association of Biology Teachers, Denver.
October 29-31-National Science Teachers Association Regional Conference, Kansas City.
The KSTC Biology Department. the Associated Student Government, and the National Audubon Society invite all interested persons to the Fourteenth Season of the Audubon Wildlife Films:
MULE DEER COUNTRY. Buzz Moss. Wednesday September 30, 1970.
ACADIAN REFLECTIONS. Robert E. Fultz. Thursday February 25, 1971.
ACADIAN REFLECTIONS. Robert E. Fultz. Thursday February 25 , 1971.
BOTSWANA - AFRICA'S LAST FRONTIER. Robert E. Coy. Tuesday, April 13, 1971
Albert Taylor Hall. on the KSTC Campus. 7:30 p.m. Family Season Ticket: $3.50. Single admission: $0.75. Student single admission: $0.25. KSTC students will be admitted free upon presentation of their ID cards. Tickets may be obtained from Dr. John Ransom, Department of Biology, Kansas State Teachers College, Emporia, Kansas, 66801. Phone 343-1200, Extension 311.
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