ABOUT THIS ISSUE
Published by: The Kansas State Teachers College of Emporia
Prepared and Issued by: The Department of Biology,
with the cooperation of the Division of Education
Editor: Robert J. Boles
Editorial Committee: Ina M. Borman, Robert F. Clarke, Gilbert A. Leisman, Bernadette Menhusen, David F. Parmelee, Carl W. Prophet
Exofficio: Dr. Edwin B. Kurtz, Head, Dept. of Biology
Online edition by: Terri Weast
The Kansas School Naturalist is sent upon request, free of charge, to Kansas teachers, school board members and administrators, librarians, conservationists, youth leaders, and other adults interested in nature education. Back numbers are sent free as long as supply lasts, except Vol. 5, No.3, Poisonous Snakes of Kansas. Copies of this issue may be obtained for 25 cents each postpaid. Send orders to The Kansas School Naturalist, Department of Biology, Kansas State Teachers College, Emporia, Kansas, 66801.
The Kansas School Naturalist is published in October, December, February, and April of each year by The Kansas State Teachers College, 1200 Commercial Street, Emporia, Kansas, 66801. Second-class postage paid at Emporia, Kansas.
"Statement required by the Act of October, 1962: Section 4369, Title 39, United States Code, showing Ownership, Management and Circulation." The Kansas School Naturalist is published in October, December, February, andApril. Editorial Office and Publication Office at 1200 Commercial Street, Emporia, Kansas, 66801. The Naturalist is edited and published by the Kansas State Teachers College, Emporia, Kansas. Editor, John Breukelman, Department of Biology.
The A. I. Root Company graciously granted permission to use the photographs in this issue of the Naturalist. Cover photo and drawings are by the author.
BEES IN GENERAL
Everyone is familiar with the expression "busy as a bee." This is a fitting statement, as this fascinating little animal has no carefree childhood, no vacations, and there is no such thing as looking forward to retirement in its old age.
Bees belong to the order of insects called the Hymenoptera. This very large order, which includes a vast number of species, is considered to be the most advanced of insect orders because they have developed a social system, with workers and royalty. Besides the bees, it includes such insects as wasps and ants. All
members of the order have four membranous wings and mouthparts adapted for chewing or for both chewing and sucking. The abdomen of a female hymenopteran is usually furnished with a stinger, piercer, or saw. Many are minute parasites of other insects, some cause the growth of galls on plants, and still others, in their larval state, feed on the foliage of plants or are borers in the stems of bushy or herbaceous
plants or in the limbs and trunks of trees.
The so-called "white ants", or termites, are not hymenopterans at all, but belong to a separate order, the Isoptera. Though they resemble some of the members of the Hymenoptera in form and habits, the resemblance is only very general. In structure the termites and the hymenopterans are widely separated.
Some 12,000 species of bees have been described, and there may be as many as 20,000 species living in the world. About 2,500 species are found in North America. Bees have been on the earth an unbelievably long time. Fossil bees found trapped in amber probably lived some 50,000,000 years ago.
The largest bee is a species of bumblebee that is a little over an inch long. The largest honeybee is the Oriental hive bee, which is seven-eighths of an inch long. The smallest bee is Trigona minima, a stingless bee that is only one-half of an inch long. The dwarf bee, the smallest honeybee, is less than three-eighths of an inch in length.
Bees provision their nests with pollen and honey, instead of animal food as do most other nestbuilding
hymenopterans. The honey is obtained from flowers in the form of nectar, which is swallowed and transported to the nest in their crops. While in the crop the nectar undergoes a chemical change, which is probably due to the mixing of the nectar with some secretions derived from the salivary glands, and becomes what is known as honey.
Female bees are adapted for the carrying of pollen by the speciialization and arrangement of some of the hairs on the body, along with the dilatation of the metatarsus of the hind legs. In the parasitic bees the females do not gather nectar and pollen, but lay their eggs in the nests of other bees. As might be expected, their pollen-collecting apparatus is quite degenerate. In most bees the pollen brushes for the collecting and transporting of pollen are borne on the hind legs. Pollen which sticks to the hairy body of
the honeybee is brushed off and packed in the pollen baskets of the hind legs.
Some bees are solitary, with each female providing a nest for her young. The mining bees dig tunnels in the ground; the mason bees build nests of mortar-like materials; the carpenter bees make tunnels in the stems of pithy plants or bore in solid wood. The distinctive characteristic of all the nests of bees, whatever the kind of bee it may be, is the fact that the nests are provisioned with honey and pollen.
Bumblebees include both the well-known nest-building species and certain parasitic bumblebees that infest the nests of the nest building forms.
These bees are large to medium in size, with their bodies covered with a rather dense covering of hairs. Their flight is noisy, and their bright colors, usually yellow and black, serve to warn other animals to give them a wide berth. They are called bumblebees because of the sound they make in flight. In England they are commonly called bumblebees.
Queen bumblebees are larger than either workers or males, and in temperate regions like Kansas are the only ones to live through the winter. In the fall the colonies break up, and all except the young queens perish. These crawl away into some protected place and pass the winter. In the spring each queen who has survived the winter founds a new colony. She must perform both the duties of the queen and workers until a new brook of workers is produced.
The queen usually selects a deserted mouse nest for her new home. Even an old bird's nest may be used for this purpose. Having found a suitable nest the queen spends a good deal of time in it, the heat of her body gradually making the interior of the nest dry. Besides laying eggs in the new nest, she lays in a store
of honey, which is placed in a large waxen pot which she constructs.
The bees that develop in the early part of the summer are all workers who relieve the queen of all duties except the laying of eggs. They feed the larvae, construct the honey pots, and special receptacles for the pollen which they collect. Late in the summer males and queens are developed, and in autumn the colony breaks up.
Bumblebees play a very important role in the fertilization of certain flowers, such as those of the red clover, in which the flower is so-shaped that the nectar cannot be reached by bees with shorter tongues. The indiscriminate use of some of the deadly poisonous sprays that have been developed in the last few years may thus actually result in a reduction in crop production in some instances.
There is an old saying that "the more old maids there are the better the clover crop will be." The explanation is that old maids usually keep cats, cats eat mice, and mice destroy bumblebee nests. Thus, the more old maids, the more cats, the more cats, the fewer mice, the fewer mice the more bumblebees, and the more bumblebees the better the pollination will be that is necessary for clover seeds to form.
The use of bees for man's benefit is not new. The people of ancient Egypt knew about honeybees, and put them to good use. A hieroglyphic honeybee is inscribed on a sarcophagus dating back to 3633 B. C., and a basrelief describing the process of extracting honey is depicted in the temple of Neuser-re, built around 2600 B.C. Cuneiform inscriptions record the introduction of bees into Assyria for the production of honey and wax (Pfadt, 1962).
The Colonists introduced honeybees into New England at least as early as 1640 to provide them with honey and wax. After 1670 bee culture declined in the colonies, probably due to a serious bee disease called American foul-brood.
The Indians were unfamiliar with honeybees and called them "the white man's fly."
The honeybee, Apis mellifica, has been widely distributed over the world by man. Of the many species of bees, it is the only one (with the exception of the pollinating activities of the bumblebee) of value to him. In fact, of the million or so kinds of insects, it is the only one utilized to any great extent by man for the production of food. There are several other species of honeybees, but they are unsuitable for human use, as they either build a single comb which hangs down from the undersides of branches; or nest in hollow
Three castes of bees are found in a colony or hive; workers, drones and queens. The workers are the well-known form that we see collecting pollen and nectar from flowers or entering and leaving the hive in large numbers. They make up the greater part of the hive; and strong hives may have from 50,000 to 80,000 workers. Such bees are actually sexually undeveloped females. They do not normally lay eggs. As workers do not mate with males, the eggs they lay are unfertilized, and the unfertilized eggs produce only drones.
Bees visit blossoms to collect pollen as well as nectar from which to make honey. An active hive may collect about 70 pounds of pollen in a summer. In 10 days, six colonies of bees may visit 88,000,000 flowers, fly about 750,000 miles and transport 750,000 bee loads equal to 33 pounds of pollen to the hive.
A swarm of bees that has left the old, crowded hive and is looking for a new home.
Eggs destined to be workers hatch three days after being laid by the queen. Five days after the larva hatches the cell in which it is growing, after first being provided with bee bread, a mixture of pollen and honey, is sealed over by a wax cover, or capped. Twenty days after the egg was laid the adult worker bites its way from the cell.
These bees are called "workers" because they perform the various duties about the hive. Their duties are related to their ages. Young workers are often called nurse bees, for they attend to the work inside the hive, which includes caring for the young bees, or brood, building comb, the hive, and protecting the entrance against robbers. As they get older, usually when about ten to fourteen days of age, they become field bees, and go into the fields to collect pollen, nectar, and propolis, a sticky material made from the resin of plants such as the cottonwood.
The honeycomb, which consists of a mass of six-sided cells, is a marvel of engineering. Though the walls are only one-eightieth of an inch in thickness, they can support thirty times their own weight. When wax is needed, masses of workers gorge themselves with honey, hold to each other, and hang like a curtain from some support within the hive, the lower bees holding to the bees above them. After about twenty-four hours flakes of wax, usually eight at a time, are secreted from wax pockets on the ventral side of the abdomen of each worker. Other bees gather the wax flakes and use them to build more honeycomb or to cap cells containing brood or honey.
The workers spend much of their time collecting nectar, from which the honey is made. Nectar is a thin, sugary solution produced by special glands on flowers, called nectaries. Workers suck up the nectar with their long tongues and store it in their honey stomachs. When their stomachs are full, they return to the hive, where they either give it to another bee or put it in an empty cell. Certain chemicals are added to the nectar when it is in the worker's stomach. Excess water is evaporated in the honey comb, and the chemicals secreted by the bee changes the nectar to honey. Workers then put a wax cap on the cell.
The amount of work required to collect even one pound of honey is almost unbelievable. Flying at about twelve miles an hour, a bee would have to travel about 13,000 miles, or about four times the distance across the United States, to collect sufficient nectar to make a pound of honey. This would involve some 80,000 trips to the field and back to the hive. A worker bee collects only about 1/10 of a pound of honey during its entire lifetime. During the busy summer season a worker usually lives about six weeks, when it
may literally "work itself to death." It may live for several months during the cold weather of fall, winter, and spring when it has less to do.
When a worker finds a source of nectar, it returns to the nest and does a "dance" which tells the other workers which direction and how far away the source of nectar is.
When it comes to defending the hive, there are no conscientious objectors among the workers, for each will fight to the death to protect the colony. It is as if the rule is "I am expendable, the colony must go on." Several workers always stand guard at the nest entrance. All the bees in the hive have their own distinctive hive odor. The guards can tell a stranger by its odor if it tries to enter the hive. The strange workers and queens are attacked and killed, but for some reason they do not bother strange drones.
Though anyone who has been stung by a bee may not agree, bees do not normally sting unless frightened or hurt. Should you be stung, quickly scrape away the stinger, which usually remains embedded in the flesh. The poison sac also tears away from the bee, and will continue to pump venom into the would unless quickly removed. It is also a good thing to remember that bees, like many people, are more ill-tempered in bad weather than they are on warm, sunny days.
Honeybees had "air conditioning" long before man invented ways to keep his home warm or cool. In winter, the workers, using the heat generated by their active bodies, will keep the interior of the hive at about 50° to 60° F. In summer, even on an extremely hot Kansas August day, the temperature inside the hive will seldom if ever reach 93° F. You may have seen bees about the hive entrance, busily fanning the air so that it circulates about the comb and brood inside.
Beekeepers in the United States, who tend more than 5,400,000 hives, sell about 2,600,000 pounds of honey each year. When considering the useful products produced by bees, most people think only of honey, but wax is also of great economic value. Each year about 4,800,000 pounds of beeswax is produced and sold in the United States. It is used in making of fine candles, in lipsticks, polishes, lubricants, salves, and phonograph records. Teale (1940) stated that the uses for beeswax are so varied and extensive that there isn't enough produced in this country to meet the demand.
Male bees are called drones, and develop in larger cells than do workers. Drones are broader, and have blunter abdomens than do workers. There are never many drones present in a hive, and they are usually present only in the early summer. They do not work, and serve only to mate with a new queen during swarming. The workers are intolerant of any of their number that do not contribute to the welfare of the hive, and after the swarming season is over the "gentlemen of leisure" are driven from the hive to freeze or starve, or are stung to death and their bodies unceremoniously dragged from the hive and dropped to the ground outside.
Drone bees cannot sting, as the stinger of a bee is a modified egg-layer or ovipositor.
A drone develops from an unfertilized egg, while the queen mother comes from a fertilized egg. This means that a drone never has a father, but always has a grandfather.
The queen and her court. Note how the worker bees face in toward the queen. They keep her fed and well-groomed.
The queen is larger than a worker bee, and has a long, pointed abdomen. She does not develop in a regular hexagonal, or six-sided, cell as does the worker or drone. A special large, cylindrical, vertical cell is constructed by the workers. From the lower end of the cell hangs a lid, which is cut away by the workers when the new queen is ready to emerge.
The queen, like the workers, develops from a fertilized egg. As she develops, however, she is fed a special food, called "royal jelly." This is a creamy substance, rich in vitamins and proteins, formed by glands in the heads of the young nurse bees. During the first three days of the larval life of a worker bee it is also fed royal jelly, but after that time it receives only honey and bee bread.
There is no difference in the egg from which a queen or a worker develops. When the workers wish to develop a new queen they tear down the partitions between three adj acent cells that, under ordinary conditions, would provide a place for three workers to develop. They then destroy two of the eggs, and build a queen cell over the remaining egg. When the egg hatches, the larva is fed royal jelly, and develops into a queen. The young queen emerges sixteen days after the egg was laid. Worker bees are believed to
add a special substance to the queen's royal jelly to make her grow faster and have a different appearance from the workers.
During the summer months only one queen is usually present in the hive. In early summer the workers often start several queen cells in the colony. If the old queen finds one of these, she immediately kills the developing queen. However, if the hive becomes too crowded, the queen becomes too old, or ceases to lay fertilized eggs, the workers may carefully keep her away from the queen-to-be. The old queen then takes a large number of her "subjects" and swarms out, and they go forth to start a new colony. Some workers will stay behind in the old hive in order to care for the larvae and the new queen.
Before the swarm leaves the hive, several workers seek a location for the new colony. Scouts may find an empty box, a hollow tree, or a hole in the wall. Once in awhile the swarm may settle on a branch or post and build the hive exposed to the weather. Such a colony is usually unable to survive the Kansas winters.
The young virgin queen, who is left behind in the old hive, will take a mating flight, accompanied by several drones. After mating, she will return to the hive and start laying eggs two days later. After mating she may lay fertile eggs for the rest of her life. A queen may live as long as five years. She may lay 2000 eggs a day, more than 200,000 in a single season, and up to 1,000,000 eggs in her lifetime.
The swarming of the honeybee is essential to the continued existence of the species, for in social insects it is as necessary for the colonies to be multiplied as it is for there to be reproduction of individuals. Otherwise, as the colonies were destroyed the species would become extinct.
Unlike bumblebees, where the colonies break up in the fall and only the young queens survive over the winter, the habits of the honeybee to store food for the winter, the ability to provide a new queen if needed, and the types of places chosen for habitation (e.g., commercial hives) makes it possible for a honeybee colony to exist almost indefinitely. Thus if old and young queens lived together there would be no production of new colonies. We may then see that what appears to be merely jealously on the part of the queen honeybee is actually an instinctive act necessary to provide for the continuance of the species.
The bees on this man's face are clustered about a queen in a queen cage. Handling bees in this manner is a job for the experts.
Carpenter bee nest in a 2" x 4" board. The board has been split to show the nest inside.
The queen has a powerful stinger, but it is seldom used except against a rival queen. Should several queens mature and emerge at the same time, there will be a battle to the death to see who reigns over the hive. The last living queen becomes the ruler. (The queen does not actually "rule" the colony, but she is the force that holds it together. The workers become excited and disorganized when the queen dies or is killed.) The workers never interfere with the grim battle unless both queens appear about to administer the "coup-de-tete" at the same time. Then they separate the combatants, only to let them resume the fight until but one queen remains. Comstock (1928) reported fmding the lifeless bodies of fifteen young queens thrown out of a single hive one morning. The remaining ruler was certainly, judging from her fighting prowess, fit to be queen.
In addition to collecting nectar and pollen, worker bees also collect propolis, a cement used to patch and cover openings in the hive. It is made from resin the bees collect from the buds of various trees, especially our state tree, the cottonwood. Propolis also makes it more difficult to work with the hive, as it sticks the frames containing honey and brood together and to the hive body.
In spite of their ability to sting, bees have many enemies. Bears, certain ants, and other bees may rob the hive of its honey. Skunks and dragonflies may eat the workers when they are in the field. Waxmoths may invade a weak colony and destroy it by eating the wax of the honeycomb. An insect called the bee assassin catches bees when they alight on flowers to collect nectar and pollen. American foulbrood is a disease which turns the young bees into a gummy, lifeless mass. Insecticides and herbicides may be the greatest enemies of all. Insecticides meant to kill harmful or undesirable insects also kill thousands of bees, as poisons are non-selective. Weed sprays often kill many of the plants from which bees would collect nectar and pollen.
The common Kansas variety of honey bee is the Italian strain, which is a yellow and brown bee. The Caucasian variety is a dark bee, with the abdomen banded with gray. It is a more mild-tempered bee than the Italian, but is not as good a honey producer and tends to propolize more, making it difficult to remove
the frames of honey from the hive.
THE OBSERVATION BEEHIVE
Bees may be safely studied in the classroom yet retain their freedom by means of an observation beehive. Such a hive consists of two panes of glass, separated by the grooved ends of the hive, so that two brood frames may be fitted between them, one above the other. This permits the activities of the bees to be readily observed from either side.
The hive should be placed in such a way that the entrance opens beneath a window upon a courtyard or school area where children do not play. If the hive is placed in a second-story window the bees will leave and return to the landing platform above the play area. A very large colony lived in the top of the old Science Hall on the KSTC campus for years, directly over heavy traffic, with no reported incidents of anyone being stung. In some modern school buildings with windows that cannot be raised from the bottom it may be necessary to cut a rectangular slot in the window glass through which the landing platform of the hive may protrude to the outside.
Plans for constructing an inexpensive observation hive are included in this issue of the Naturalist. Only a few tools are needed for making and assembling the hive, and the necessary materials should be easy to obtain.
Foundation and brood frames may be secured from a local bee keeper or may be ordered from any bee supply company. Bees for stocking the hive may be ordered at the same time foundation and brood frames are ordered. There are a number of good sources from which bees and bee supplies may be purchased. The Biology Department has been well satisfied with the bees we have obtained from the A. I. Root Company of Council Bluffs, Iowa, for use in our school observation hive at KSTC. Sears, Roebuck and Company is reported to have a developed a very gentle strain of bees for the beekeeper. Be sure to order the Caucasian variety, as they are more docile and less apt to sting than the Italian strain. The queen
will be easier to locate as she moves about on the brood comb if she is marked with a drop of bright-colored paint. The supplier will do this for you upon request.
Bees are ordered by the pound, and shipped in a wire-sided package. There will be about 5000 bees to the pound, and a two-pound package will be plenty for starting your hive. The queen will be enclosed in a small cage inside the shipping container. In Kansas bees may be ordered to arrive around the middle of April. It will be necessary to feed them a sugar-water solution for a time until the workers can collect nectar and pollen from the early spring flowers and construct cells in which to store them.
If there is a beekeeper in your area, ask him to help you transfer the bees from the shipping container into your observation hive. If there is no one available to help, you can transfer the bees yourself.
Prepare a 50-50 sugar-water solution, and, using a clean paint brush apply the mixture to each of the wire sides of the shipping container until the bees are well fed. Remove the top of the observation hive. Now lift out the queen cage from the shipping container and place it upon the top crosspiece of the upper brood frame, wire side up. A piece of cardboard may be used to keep the workers from escaping from the hole where the queen cage was. Remove the cover from over the opening at the end of the queen cage so that she may be free within the hive. Replace the top of the observation hive, after having first removed the wire covering from over the middle ventilating hole, and turn the shipping container over this middle opening in the hive cover. Slip out the cardboard which has covered the opening in the top of the shipping container and match up the two holes. The worker bees will leave the shipping container and join the queen in their new home.
Within a few days the workers will have constructed cells in which nectar and pollen may be stored. Soon after the workers have collected food from the dandelions and other early spring flowers, the queen will be busily laying eggs, and the many activities of the hive will be in full swing.
SUGGESTED QUESTIONS AND SUGGESTIONS
1. Was the original shipment composed of workers, drones, or both? If drones are present, do you see any of them working? How do you distinguish a worker from a drone bee?
2 . If no drones are present when your bees arrive, how soon are the first ones seen? Can you see any relationship between the number of workers in the hive and the first appearance of the drones? Why does a hive need drones? Watch for changes in the r a tio of workers to drones. What does the increase in the number of drones suggest?
3. Locate the queen and watch her activities. Map her movements over a period of time by marking on the glass with a wax pencil. Is there any "system" to her movements, or are they random? If there is an apparent method to her movements, are they circular or in a straight line? If Circular, does she move clockwise or counterclockwise?
4. Watch the queen lay an egg, and mark the cell in which the egg was laid by means of a dot or circle made on the glass by a wax-marking pencil. Check the cell each day. How many days until the cell is capped? How ma ny days pass until the young bee emerges? Does the time agree with the number of days given in the text of this Naturalist?
5. Prepare sugar solution dyed with various colors of cake coloring (e.g., red, blue, green, etc.). Place containers holding the different-colored sugar solutions in a row before the hive where the bees can find them. Compare the numbers of bees that visit each container, and the order in which the containers are emptied of their contents. Do bees show a preference for one color over another? If so, rate the colors as to preference. Do bees avoid some colors? Compare the colors of the sugar solutions most preferred with the colors of the flowers in bloom at that time. Is there any correlation? Do the colored sugar solutions result in colored honey?
6. Notice the number of bees that are "talking" to their sisters in the hive before the sugar solutions are put out. Do you see any change in the communication rate upon discovery of the new food supply? How does a bee "tell" the others where the food supply is?
7. Compare the rate of activity with the time of day. Is there any correlation? If so, at what time of day are the bees most active?
8. Compare the rate of activity with the air temperature outside the classroom. Does there seem to be a correlation? What is the lowest temperature at which the bees start to leave the hive in search of nectar and pollen? At what temperature range are the bees most active? At what temperature do the bees return to the hive and cease outside activities?
9. Take a short field trip and sprinkle a powder, such as flour, on the backs of bees on the flowers in and about the school yard. Watch for these marked bees to return to your hive. If you wish to compare the results of various classes you may use a differently colored powder (e.g., tempra powder) for each class. Which class marked the most bees in the field? Each class may then watch for the bees they marked to return to the hive. Which class had the most bees return to your hive?
10. Make a map of the area, and mark the places bees are seen collecting nectar and pollen. Compare your results to those obtained by other classes. Repeat the procedure a week later. Are bees still returning
to the same areas in comparable numbers? If there are changes, how do you account for them?
11. Note the kinds of flowers that are being visited by the workers. Do all kinds of flowers attract bees, or are they more apt to be found on certain kinds? Did any of the marked bees take their load of nectar and pollen to the hive and then return to the same area to collect more?
12. When the hive gets too crowded, the bees will swarm. Watch for the bees to collect in a large mass about the opening into the hive. See if you can discover where the bees go when they swarm. Does your old queen remain behind, or does she go with the swarm and leave a new queen behind? (This is easy to tell if the old queen is marked). You may wish to call a beekeeper in the area, and ask him to "hive" the swarm while the class watches.
Comstock, Henry John. 1948. An Introduction to Entomology. 9th Edition. Comostock Publishing Company. Ithaca,. New York.
Eddy, Brayton. 1946. What Good Are Insects? National Audubon Society. New York, New York.
Editorial Staff. A. I. Root Company. 1960. Starting Right With Bees. 12th Edition. The A. I. Root Company, Publishers. Medina, Ohio.
Gates, Dell, and LeRoy L. Peters. 1962. Insects in Kansas. Extension Division, Kansas State University. Manhattan, Kansas.
Pfadt , Robert. 1962. Fundamentals of Applied Entomology. The MacMillan Company. New York, New York.
Parker, Ralph L. 1958. Bee Culture in Kansas. Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station, Bulletin 357.
Lindauer, M. 1961. Communication Among Social Bees. Cambridge, Mass. Harvard University Press.
NEW COURSE IN ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY
The Ross Natural History Reservation was the center this post summer of intense experimentation with plants ond animals in their natural environment. Thirty-five elementary, secondary, and junior college teachers were the first participants in this new, individualized course at K.S.T.C. The purpose of the course is to help teachers to learn how to use the environment about their school in the study of pollution, populations, weather, soil, and so forth.
All lab and field work was at the K.S.T.C. Biology field station west of Emporia. Overnight studies were included in the program. If you are interested in more information about Environmental Biology (Biology 536, 5 credits) please write the Department of Biology, KSTC.
AUDUBON SCREEN TOURS
The Department of Biology will present the twelfth Audubon Screen Tour Series in 1969-1970. Th is series will consist of three all-color motion pictures of wildlife, plants,. and conservation, personally narrated by leading naturalists. The program will be given in Albert Taylor Hall on the KSTC campus at 7:30 p.m. The speakers, film titles, and dates are listed below. Both group and single adm ission tickets are available; for further information write Dr. John D. Ransom, Department of Biology, KSTC, Emporia, Kansas, 66801.
Fran William Hall, The Real Yellowstone, October 21,1969.
Kent Durden, Death Valley-land of Contrast, November 13, 1969.
Albert J. Wool, Coastline California, April 6, 1970.
ASSISTANCE WITH STUDENT RESEARCH
You and your students may receive help in developing student research from members of the KSTC biology faculty and biology majors. Teachers and students are invited to come to the college campus where trained persons with diverse backgrounds are available for consultation. A student should have an area of interest and a problem in mind before seeking help. The help he could expect would consist of a refinement of the problem, means for controlling variables, sources of equipment and supplies, location of reference materials or resource persons, methods of data collection, and analysis of data. If you desire to bring students to the campus for up to one-half day consultations, please contact Dr. Harold Durst at least two weeks prior to the anticipated visit, providing him with the following information: first and second choice times for the visit, names of the students and the titles of their individual research problems.
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