KSN - Vol 12, No 4 - Let's ExperimentVolume 12, Number 4 - March 1966

Let's Experiment
(Second in a Series)

by Ina M. Borman and Helen M. Douglass

Published by The Kansas State Teachers College of Emporia

Prepared and Issued by The Department of Biology, with the cooperation of the Division of Education

Editor: John Breukelman, Department of Biology

Editorial Committee: Ina M. Borman, Robert F. Clarke, Helen M. Douglass, Gilbert A. Leisman, David F. Parmelee, Carl W. Prophet

Online format by: Terri Weast

The Kansas School Naturalist is sent upon request, free of charge, to Kansas teachers, school board members and administrators, librarians, conservationists, youth leaders, and other adults interested in nature education. Back numbers are sent free as long as the supply lasts, except Vol. 5, No.3, Poisonous Snakes of Kansas. Copies of this issue may be obtained for 25 cents each postpaid. Send orders to The Kansas School Naturalist, Department of Biology, Kansas State Teachers College, Emporia, Kansas.

The Kansas School Naturalist is published in October, December, February, and April of each year by The Kansas State Teachers College, 1200 Commercial Street, Emporia, Kansas. Second-class postage paid at Emporia, Kansas.


ALL OF THE DRAWINGS in this number were made by Dr. Robert J. Boles, of the Department of Biology, whose drawings text have appeared in many previous numbers.


Let's Experiment
(Second in a Series)

by Ina M. Borman and Helen M. Douglass

Elementary science is a "doing" science. One way children can solve their problems is by experimenting. It is essential that there be a real purpose for doing an experiment; thus you have a problem that can be solved better by the experimental method than by reading about it. An experiment should be designed in such a way that it causes children to think and to reach conclusions. Pupils should do the experiments themselves. Plan experiments carefully, and keep them as simple as possible.

This issue of THE KANSAS SCHOOL NATURALIST is the second of a series devoted to a group of experiments that require simple apparatus to perform. Each experiment was developed from the following viewpoints:

  1. Problem
    This is the reason for the experiment.

  2. Materials needed
    Assemble all essential materials needed in order to perform the experiment effectively.

  3. What to do
    Directions for doing the experiment are given under this heading, but the experiment may be modified to meet the needs of your class.

  4. Conclusion
    From the results obtained in doing the experiment the children should be able to come to some conclusion concerning the problem. Several questions, suggested under this heading, may be used as guides in arriving at satisfactory conclusions. Of course, there may be other questions that the children wish and need to discuss.

This issue includes a miscellany of experiments dealing with simple machines, light, sound, oxidation, water, air, weather, soil, and living things. It is hoped that additional experiments may be included in future issues of THE KANSAS SCHOOL NATURALIST.

The suggested grade levels are based on our use of the experiments in Thomas W. Butcher Childrens' School, on the campus of the Kansas State Teachers College. We believe these grade levels are appropriate, but recognize that the experiments may be useful at levels other than the suggested ones.

SIMPLE MACHINES

INCLINED PLANE

KSN - Vol 12, No 4 - figure 1 

Intermediate

Problem
To show that the force needed to pull a load on an inclined plane changes as the inclined plane is made steeper or less steep

Materials
Board about six feet long, spring balance, toy wagon with a load

What to Do
Establish a platform, such as the edge of a table, about thirty-six inches from the floor. Place the board from the platform to the floor, as shown in Figure 1. Pull the wagon up the inclined plane to the platform using a spring balance.

How many pounds of force did it take?
Repeat the experiment but have the platform at different heights from the floor. How many pounds of force did it take to pull the load up when the inclined plane is steeper? How many when it is not so steep?

Conclusion
1. How is the force related to the steepness of the inclined plane?
2. Why is the grade on a mountain road long and gentle rather than short and steep?

SCREW

KSN - Vol 12, No 4 - figure 2

Figure 2. Two right triangles with the same heights but with bases of different lengths.

Intermediate

Problem
To show that a screw is an inclined plane

Materials
Scissors, two pieces of paper, two round pencils of the same diameter, crayon

What to Do
Cut two right triangles with equal heights but with different length bases, as shown in Figure 2. Color the edge of the hypotenuse of each with a crayon. Wrap the smaller triangle around one of the pencils, keeping the base of the triangle even. Do the same thing with the larger triangle and the other pencil.

Conclusion
1. What did you observe about the colored line along the hypotenuse of the triangle?
2. How does this resemble a screw?
3. What is the distance between the grooves of a screw called?
4. What is the relationship of the two screws?
5. Which screw would be the easier to drive?

AIR

KSN - Vol 12, No 4 - figure 3

Figure 3. A half-gallon, or larger, tin can with a tight screw top.

KSN - Vol 12, No 4 - figure 4

Figure 4. A simple "cartesian diver"

KSN - Vol 12, No 4 - figure 5

Figure 5. Air pressure supporting a weight

KSN - Vol 12, No 4 - figure 6

Figure 6. Effect of changing air pressures

AIR PRESSURE I

Intermediate

Problem
To show that air exerts pressure

Materials
Tin can, half gallon or larger, with screw top lid, as shown in Figure 3; hot plate or other source of heat; cup; water

What To Do
Pour a half cup of water into the can and place the can on the hot plate. Allow the water to boil. When a good flow of steam is coming from the mouth of the can and cloud is formed, remove the can from the source of heat, using a hot pad, and screw on the lid . Observe what happens as the can cools.

Conclusion
1. How was the air pushed out of the can?
2. What filled the can after the air was pushed out?
3. How was the pressure inside the can reduced?
4. What happened when the pressure inside the can was reduced?

AIR PRESSURE II

Intermediate

Problem
To show that air can be compressed by applying pressure to it and expanded by releasing the pressure

Materials
Large-mouth quart jar, eye dropper (medicine dropper), piece of thin rubber from a balloon, elastic band

What to Do
Fill the jar with water. Have the glass part of the eye dropper half full of water. Gently lower the eye dropper, small end first, into the water. If the eye dropper sinks, release two or three drops of water and lower it again into the water contained in the quart jar. Keep testing the amount of water in the eye dropper until you have the right amount for it to float. See Figure 4. Place the thin rubber section tightly over the mouth of the jar and secure it with a rubber band. Push down gently on the rubber covering. What happened to the eye dropper? Release the pressure on top of the rubber covering. What happened to the eye dropper?
1. Why did the eye dropper go to the bottom of the jar?
2. What caused the eye dropper to float when the pressure was released?
3. How does this experiment show how a cartesian diver works?

AIR PRESSURE III

Primary

Problem
To show air pressure can raise a weight

Materials
Small toy balloon; weight, such as several books

What to Do
Place the balloon flat on the table with the open end near the edge of the table. Put a book on top of the balloon, as shown in Figure 5. Inflate the balloon by blowing into it steadily. Watch what happens to the book. Add more books to the pile and inflate the balloon again. What happened?
Conclusion
1. What caused the books to rise?
2. What does this tell you about air pressure?
3. Why is it important to have automobile tires properly inflated?
4. Why would it be impossible to inflate an automobile tire by just blowing air into it? Why must air be put into an automobile tire by mechanical means?

EFFECT OF AIR PRESSURE

Primary

Problem
To show an effect of air pressure

Materials
Gallon jar or glass jug, balloon, two glass tubes, rubber band, paraffin, two-hole cork

What to Do
Fasten the balloon at the end of one of the tubes (A, Figure 6) with an elastic rubber band. Insert both glass tubes through the openings of the two-hole cork. Use butter or paraffin around the cork to insure air tightness. (When paraffin solidifies, the cork is sealed in the opening of the jar.) Remove some of the air from the bottle by placing the mouth over the glass tube B, and sucking. Observe what happens to the balloon.

Conclusion
1. What caused the balloon to be inflated as some of the air was removed from the jar or jug?
2. How could one force the air out of the balloon without touching tube A?
3. What causes eardrums to pain as one descends in an airplane?

WATER

WATER PRESSURE

Primary and Intermediate

Problem
To show the effect of depth on water pressure

Materials
Coffee can or tall juice can, nail, hammer, ruler, small corks or masking tape, container or water

What to Do
Make a hole near the top of the can using a nail and a hammer. Make another hole in the middle of the can and a third hole near the bottom of the can.

Be sure the holes are directly below each other and equal distances apart. Plug each hole with a piece of cork or with masking tape. Fill the can with water. Now remove the cork or tape from the bottom opening. What happened? Using a ruler, measure and record the horizontal distance from the can to the point to which the water is forced. See A in Figure 7. Put the plug back in the opening and again fill the can with water. Remove tile middle plug. Measure and record the horizontal distance from the can to the point to which the water is forced. See B. Put the plug back in the middle opening and once more fill the can with water. Remove the top plug. Measure and record the horizontal distance from the can to the point to which the water is forced. See C. Plot the results in graph form as illustrated in D.

Conclusion
1. What did you observe happening in the three different situations?
2. Why is there greater pressure on the bottom than on top?
3. How could this information help in building a dam?

KSN - Vol 12, No 4 - figure 7

Figure 7. Depth and water pressure

SOUND

PITCH

Intermediate

Problem
To show how a wind instrument produces a sound

Materials
Drinking straw, pop bottle, water

KSN - Vol 12, No 4 - figure 8

Figure 8. A "wind instrument"

KSN - Vol 12, No 4 - figure 9

Figure 9. A "thermometer"

What to Do
Add water to a pop bottle until it is three-fourths full. Place the straw in the bottle. Hold the pop bottle in your left hand and straw in your right hand. (See Figure 8.) Blow across the straw. What happened? Now lower the bottle held in your left hand but keep the end of the straw in the water. Now blow across the straw. What happened?

Conclusion
1. What was the difference in the sound between the two positions of the straw in the water?
2. What caused this difference in sound?
3. How does this experiment relate to the way a wind instrument works?

HEAT

THE THERMOMETER

Primary

Problem
To show the principle of a thermometer

Materials
Glass tube, water, red cake coloring, teakettle, pan, one-hole cork, bottle

What to Do
Insert the glass tube through the opening in the cork and place the cork and tube in the opening of the bottle. See Figure 9. The bottle has colored water in it. Heat the water in the teakettle and pour over the bottle containing water. This hot water will warm the water in the bottle. As the water in the bottle becomes war, watch what happens in the tube.

Conclusion
1. What caused the water to go up the tube?
2. How could you lower the water in the tube?
3. What do the markings on a thermometer represent?

LIGHT

WHITE LIGHT

Intermediate

Problem
To make white light by mixing the proper kinds of colored lights

Material
Piece of red cellophane, piece of blue cellophane, piece of yellow cellophane, 3 flash lights that produce small spots of light, white screen

What to Do
Cover the head of each flash light with a layer of cellophane of one color. In a dark room shine the red light on a white screen. Shine the green light on the same spot. Shine the blue light on the same spot. The flash lights should be equal distances from the screen so that the sports will be the same size. Try the different combinations: red and blue, red and green, blue and green, then all three.

Conclusion
1. What did you observe on the screen?
2. How do you account for this situation?
3. What does this experiment tell you a bout light?

LIGHT TRANSMISSION

KSN - Vol 12, No 4 - figure 10

Figure 10. Refraction of light

Intermediate

Problem
To show how light travels through different materials

Materials
A coin, cup, water

What to Do
Lay the coin on the bottom of the cup. Lower your head until the coin is just hidden by the rim or edge of the cup so that you cannot see it. Pour water carefully into the cup. When the water reaches a certain level, the coin will appear to rise and become visible. See Figure 10.

Conclusion
1. Why was the coin invisible the first time observed?
2. What caused the coin to appear to rise?

REFRACTION

Intermediate

Problem
To find the effect of light passing through different materials at a different rate

Materials
Tub of water and stick, or glass of water and spoon

What to Do
Fill the tub with water. Put the stick in the water. Look at the stick from various directions; hold the stick at various angles.

Conclusion
1. What caused the stick to appear to be bent?
2. What does this tell you about light?

KSN - Vol 12, No 4 - figure 11

Figure 11. Breaking up white light.


RAINBOW

Intermediate

Problem
To show how to make a rainbow

Materials
Pyrex dish or two-quart milk carton, small mirror, tape, water

What to Do
Cut away the side of the milk carton, as shown in Figure 11. Tape or seal the lid shut so that it is water tight. Place the carton on its side and fill with water. A pyrex baking dish can be used instead of the milk carton. Place the mirror at the end of the carton or dish on a slant, as shown. Let the light rays strike the mirror in the water directly.

Conclusion
1. What is the effect of the water?
2. What caused the light rays to be bent?
3. Where have you seen this same phenomenon?

OXIDATION

OXIDATION I

Primary

Problem
To show oxidation

Materials
Two steel wool pads; water; 2 shallow dishes; olive oil, cooking oil, or any other thin oil What to Do
Place one of the steel wool pads in a dish and add water until the pad is one-half covered. Put the second pad in the second dish, without water being added. Allow to stand for several days. Repeat experiment using oil instead of water.

Conclusion
1. In what ways were the pads different after each experiment?
2. What caused this change?
3. Why do the steel wool scouring pads used in the kitchen oxidize?

KSN - Vol 12, No 4 - figure 12
Figure 12. Oxidation


Primary

Problem
To show oxidation

Materials
Three jars or water glasses, 2 steel wool pads, 3 foil pie tins or shallow pans

What to Do
Moisten one steel wool pad and wedge or tape it to the bottom of jar A, as shown in Figure 12. Invert the jar in the pan of water. Tape or wedge a dry steel wool pad to the bottom of jar B and invert this jar in a pan without water in it. Invert jar C in a pan of water.Note that container C does not have steel wool in it.

Conclusion
1. What happened in each of the three jars?
2. How can you account for this situation?
3. Why does painting iron prevent oxidation?

WEATHER

EVAPORATION

Primary

Problem
To show the results of evaporation of water

Materials
Water, sponge, chalkboard, handkerchief

What to Do
Wet a sponge and rub it over the chalkboard. Observe what happened to the chalkboard. Wet a handkerchief and hang it in the air. Do these experiments on different types of days such as sunny day, cloudy day, rainy day, windy day, still day. Measure the length of time it takes the water to disappear.

Conclusion
1. Which day did the water evaporate the fastest?
2. Why didn't it take the same length of time to evaporate the water on each day?
3. What happened to the water?

CLOUDS

KSN - Vol 12, No 4 - figure 13

Figure 13. Formation of a cloud

Primary

Problems
To discover how clouds are formed and what causes rain

Materials
Teakettle, hot plate or other source of heat, pan, ice cubes, water

What to Do
Boil water in a teakettle. Fill a pan with ice cubes. Hold the pan of ice cubes near the spout of the teakettle, as shown in Figure 13. Observe the area between the teakettle spout and the visible material, called a cloud.

Conclusion
1. What did you see near the spout?
2. What happened when the warm moist air came in contact with the cold pan?
3. How did this experiment show cloud formation?
4. Where did you see a cloud in this experiment?
5. Where was the steam?
6. Why do scientists say steam is invisible?
7. What causes the clouds in the sky?
8. What kinds of clouds do we have in the sky?

DEW

Primary

Problem To show how dew is formed

Materials
Ice cubes, water glass, saucer or coaster

What to Do
Fill a water glass two-thirds full of water and add ice cubes. Place the water glass in a saucer and put both on the table. Keep at room temperature. Observe what happened on the outside of the glass.

Conclusion
1. Where did the moisture observed on the outside of the glass come"from"?
2. When should coasters be placed under the water glasses at the dinner table?
3. Why does moisture often form on the inside surface of the Windows of a car?
4. When would the moisture form on the outside of the car windows?
5. Why is the grass sometimes wet early in the morning during the spring and summer months?

CONVECTION I

KSN - Vol 12, No 4 - figure 14
Figure 14. Convection currents

Intermediate

Problem
To observe convection currents

Materials
Pyrex dish or Pyrex coffee pot, water, coffee grounds, spoon, hot plate

What to Do
Fill a dish or coffee pot almost full with water. Add five or six teaspoons of coffee grounds. Place the container on the hot plate, as shown in Figure 14. Heat.

Conclusion
1. What caused the coffee grounds to move?
2. What direction did they move?
3. How is this similar to air currents?
4. What causes windy weather?

CONVECTION II

Intermediate

Problem To show convection currents

Materials
Two Pyrex beakers or glasses, 2 large aquarium tanks or dish pans, red food coloring, blue food coloring

What to Do
Place cold water in one aquarium until it is almost full. Fill the other aquarium almost full of hot water (not too hot for the hands). Fill one beaker with cold water and add a few drops of blue coloring. Stir until a uniform color is present. Fill the second beaker with hot water and add a few drops of red coloring. Stir. Lower the beaker with hot water and red coloring into the large aquarium containing cold water. Lower the beaker containing cold water and blue coloring into the large aquarium containing hot water.

Conclusion
1. What happened in each case?
2. In what way are these similar to movements of warm and cold masses of air?
3. How can information about air movements be used in forecasting weather?

SOIL

MAKING SOIL

Primary

Problem
To make soil

Materials
Clay, sand, dried leaves or dried grass, water, flower pot

What to Do
Crumble clay and mix it with sand. Pulverize the dry leaves and add to the mixture. Keep moist and stir occasionally. Fill the flower pot with the soil and plant some bean seeds. Keep at room temperature. Observe the plants when they begin to grow.

Repeat the above experiment except add more clay to the mixture and place the material in a flower pot. Plant bean seeds in the soil. Observe the growth of plants.

Conclusion
1. Of what is oil made?
2. In what ways is soil different?
3. How did the changing of the ingredients affect the growth of the plants?
4. How may soil be enriched?
5. How does loam soil differ from sandy soil?
6. How does loam soil differ from clay soil?

EROSION I

KSN - Vol 12, No 4 - figure 15

Figure 15. Wind erosion

KSN - Vol 12, No 4 - figure 16

Figure 16. Protection from the wind

Primary

Problem
To show the effects of wind on sand and dust particles

Materials
Box about two inches deep; sand or soil; electric fan; match sticks, twigs, popsicle sticks, pieces of grass

What to Do
Spread the sand evenly over the bottom of the box. Place the fan so that it blows over the sand, as shown in Figure 15. What happened? Again, spread the sand evenly over the bottom of the box. Place match sticks, twigs, grass, and popsicle sticks in the sand. Turn the fan so that it blows over the sand again. What happened?

Conclusion
1. What made the difference in the position of the sand in the two different situations?
2. Why do we plant wind breaks?

EROSION II

Primary

Problem
To show how erosion can be reduced

Materials
Two boards about 6 x 18 inches, Vaseline or other type of oily substance

What to Do
Rub Vaseline or any other oily substance on each of the two boards. On a windy day place one board in a large grassy area and one in an area without grass, both with the Vaseline or oily side up. See Figure 16. Examine the boards periodically and note the amount of soil or dust adhering to each board.

Conclusion
1    Why did one board have more dust on it?
2    How did the grass help prevent dust from blowing?
3    How can wind erosion be prevented?

CAPILLARY ACTION

Intermediate

Problem
To show capillary action in plants

Materials
Stalk of celery, water, quart jar, food coloring

What to Do
Fill a quart jar nearly full of water. Add some food coloring to the water. Place a freshly cut stalk of celery in the water. Allow it to stand several hours; then examine the celery.

Conclusion
1. What happened to the leaves of the celery?
2. How do you account for this condition?
3. In what way does this explain how the water gets from the roots of trees to the leaves?

PLANTS

OSMOSIS

Intermediate

Problem
To show osmosis in plants

Materials
Two unpeeled potatoes, 2 dishes (oatmeal size), 2 teaspoons of sugar, water, paring knife.

What to Do
Boil one potato until thoroughly cooked (about 20 minutes). Slice the top and bottom off each potato. Cut a hole or hollow out of a space in each potato, as shown in Figure 17. Remove a complete circle of peel from the lower half of each potato. Place the potatoes in the dishes and add water. Put one teaspoon of sugar in each cavity. Let the potatoes stand for twenty-four hours.

Conclusion
1. What happened to the sugar?
2. What took place in the uncooked potato?
3. Why didn't the same thing take place in the cooked potato?
4. What does this tell you about plants?

KSN - Vol 12, No 4 - figure 17

Figure 17 Osmosis

TRANSPIRATION

Primary and Intermediate

KSN - Vol 12, No 4 - figure 18

Figure 18. Transpiration

Problem
To show transpiration in plants

Materials
Two potted plants such as geraniums or coleus, 2 plastic bags, 2 elastic bands

What to Do
Water the plants thoroughly. Remove all the leaves from on plant. Put each plant in a plastic bag and fasten the bag securely with an elastic band, as shown in Figure 18. Place both plants in a sunny spot in the room.

Conclusion
1. What formed on the inside of the plastic bag?
2. Where did this material come from?
3. Why was there a difference in the two plants?
4. How could plants in a classroom be watered during a vacation?
5. What is meant by transpiration?

GERMINATION

Intermediate

Problem
To find out what effect the depth of seed planting has on germination and growth

KSN - Vol 12, No 4 - figure 19
Figure 19. A root box

Materials
Root box, water, rich soil, large lima beans, glass, quarter round

What to Do
Make a root box, as shown in Figure 19. Fill the upper part of the box (above the glass) with rich soil. Plant the lima bean seeds at different depths against the glass. Moisten the soil. Observe daily.

Conclusion
1. How long did it take the seeds to germinate?
2. What plants came up first?
3. At what level of planting did the seed s fail to grow?
4. How do you account for this difference?
5. What does this tell you about the depth to plant seeds?

OIL CONTENT I

Primary

Problem
To determine the oil content of various nuts

Materials
Blotter, nutcracker, peanut, hazelnut, pecan, almond, chestnut, cashew

What to Do
Remove the nuts from their shells. Crush each type of nut on the blotter. Observe what happened.

Conclusion
1. What was the material you observed on the blotter?
2. How much of a spot did each nut make on the blotter?
3. What conclusions can you draw from this experiment?
4. Why shouldn't too many of these nuts be included in the diet of people?

OIL CONTENT II

Intermediate

KSN - Vol 12, No 4 - figure 20
Figure 20. A Brazilnut "candle"

Problem
To show the oil content of a Brazil nut

Materials
Brazil nut, tin lid, glue or clay, nutcracker, matches, knife

What to Do
Remove the Brazil nut whole from its shell. With a knife, sharpen one end of the Brazil nut to a point. Square off the other end and glue it to the tin lid, or fasten it with a piece of clay, as shown in Figure 20. With a match, light the sharpened end of the Brazil nut.

Conclusion
1. What did you observe happening?
2. What was really burning?
3. How long did it burn?
4. What conclusions can you draw from this experiment?

ANIMALS

EARTHWORMS

Primary and Intermediate

Problem
To show that earthworms prefer dark places to live

Materials
Large mouth bottle, sand, leaf mold, loam soil, several earthworms, charcoal, black construction paper

What to Do
Place some charcoal in the bottom of the lane bottle and cover with one inch of sand. Add alternately, leaf mold and loam until the bottle is filled within three inches of the top. Do not cover the bottle. Put several earthworms in the bottle. Put pieces of lettuce and cabbage leaves on top of the soil to be used as food for the earthworms. Wrap black construction paper around the bottle and fasten it securely. Leave the construction paper around the bottle for one week. Remove the construction paper and
examine the bottle. What did you observe? The second week keep the bottle in the same place but omit the construction paper. At the end of the second week, examine the bottle again. What did you observe?

Conclusion
1. Why is it important to put charcoal in the bottom of the bottle?
2. Why should the soil be kept damp?
3. What did this show about the habitat of earthworms?


THE 1966 WORKSHOP IN CONSERVATION will again be conducted in two sections, from June 6 to June 24, and from June 27 to July 15, inclusive. As in the past several years, the Workshop will cover water, soil, grassland, wildlife conservation and conservation teaching.

There will be lectures, demonstrations, discussion groups, films, slides, field trips, projects, and individual and group reports. You may enroll for undergraduate or graduate credit.

The first section is open to any interested person; there are no prerequisites. Since the second section is devoted almost entirely to the production of teaching aids (e.g. preparation of copy for an issue of The Kansas School Naturalist), enrollment is limited to those who already have an established interest in conservation education and who have some teaching experience.

Fee for first section (3 hours credit): Residents of Kansas, $27.30; non-residents-undergraduates, $76.35, graduates, $37.35. Second section (3 hours credit): same rates.

For other information write the director, Scott D. Hagen, Department of Biology, KSTC, Emporia, Kansas.


This is the last issue of The Kansas School Naturalist for the 1965-66 school year. The next issue will be that of October, 1966. Since The Naturalist is mailed second class it will not be forwarded . If you plan to move to a new address and you still wish to receive each issue you must notify us of a change of address. Just send a postcard with your name, 1966-67 address, and old address to the editor.


SUGGESTED READING

Blackwood, Paul E. (editor). THE HOW AND WHY WONDER BOOK OF BEGINNING SCIENCE. Wonder Books, Inc. New York: 1960. 50¢ (48 pages).

_____ THE HOW AND WHY WONDER BOOK OF SCIENCE EXPERIMENTS. Wonder Books, Inc. New York: 1962. 50¢( 48 page).

Mullin, Virginia. CHEMISTRY FOR CHILDREN. Sterling Publishing Company, Inc. 419 Fourth Avenue, New York 16, New York. 1961. $2.84

Newbury, N. F. and H. A. Armstrong. THE YOUNG EXPERIMENTER (Science in Action Series, Book I). Sterling Publishing Company, Inc. 419 Fourth Avenue, New York 16, New York: 1960. $3.95

UNESCO. 700 SCIENCE EXPERIMENTS FOR EVERYONE. Doubleday and Company, Inc. Garden City, New York: 1958. $3.00

Viorst, Judith. 150 SCIENCE EXPERIMENTS STEP-BY-STEP. Bantam Books. New York: 1963. (paperback) 60¢

Vivian, Charles. SCIENCE GAMES FOR CHILDREN. Sterling Publishing Company, Inc. 419 Fourth Avenue, New York 16, New York. 1963. $2.95

INVESTIGATING SCIENCE WITH CHILDREN Series. Teachers Publishing Corporation. Darien, Connecticut, 1964. $1.95 each. The series of six may be obtained from NEA for $10.00.
   Volume 1 Living Things - James Wailes
   Volume 2 The Earth - Lawrence Hubbell
   Volume 3 Atoms and Molecules - Trieger, Seymour
   Volume 4 Motion - Lis Dunn
   Volume 5 Energy in Waves - Louis T. Cox, Jr.
   Volume 6 Space - Arthur L. Costa

Science and Children, National Science Teachers Association, 1201 Sixteenth Street N.W., Washington 6, D.C. This magazine has replaced the Elementary School Science Bulletin as the NSTA journal of elementary science. It is published eight times during the school year. First issue, Sept. 1963. $4.00


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