THE COVER PICTURE (courtesy of The State Geological Survey of Kansas) shows Rock City, 2 1/2 miles southeast of Minneapolis, in Ottawa County, a group of about 200 sandstone concretions, roughly spherical, ranging from about 8 to nearly 30 feet in diameter. Several attempts have been made by interested persons to have this geologically important area preserved as a state park, but thus far to no avail. (Update, 2012: Rock City is owned and operated as a park by Rock City, Inc., a local non-profit corporation.)
ABOUT THIS ISSUE
Published by The Kansas State Teachers College of Emporia
Prepared and Issued by The Department of Biology, with the cooperation of the Division of Education
Editor: John Breukelman, Department of Biology
Editorial Committee: Ina M. Borman, Robert F. Clarke, Helen M. Douglass, Gilbert A. Leisman, David Parmelee, Carl F. Prophet
Online format by: Terri Weast
The Kansas School Naturalist is sent upon request, free of charge, to Kansas teachers and others interested in nature education. Back numbers are sent free as long as the supply lasts, except Vol. 5, No. 3, Poisonous Snakes of Kansas. Copies of this issue may be obtained for 25 cents each postpaid. Send orders to The Kansas School Naturalist, Department of Biology, Kansas State Teachers College, Emporia, Kansas.
The Kansas School Naturalist is published in October, December, February, and April of each year by The Kansas State Teachers College, 1200 Commercial Street, Emporia, Kansas. Second-class mail privileges authorized at Emporia, Kansas.
This article does not cover all aspects of Kansas geology but deals primarily with rocks and the stories they tell regarding the state's geological development. Rocks are the key to the study of the geology of an area for they yield a great deal of information never suspected by the casual observer who has had little or no geological training. However, an analyzation of the rocks alone is of little value to the geologist unless he is familiar with the geological processes that are going on at the present time. In order to understand the full meaning of the various rocks he may find, the geologist must first study them in the actual process of formation which would take him to such places as volcanoes, deltas, and ocean floors. This enables him to recognize features that he observes in the rocks and to arrive at valid conclusions as to how they were formed. An investigation of this type, then, takes the geologist into the field as well as the laboratory, and requires that he have some knowledge of other scientific endeavors such as chemistry, physics, and biology.
Before beginning to study rocks, one must have some knowledge of minerals because they are the materials of which rocks are composed. Minerals are defined as naturally occuring, inorganic compounds or elements. Such things as bones, teeth, and shells are excluded from the mineral kingdom because they are formed by living organisms. For the same reason, coal and petroleum, usually thought of as part of our mineral resources, are excluded. Since minerals are formed by nature, we also exclude man-made compounds, even though their composition may be identical to those of naturally occuring compounds.
Some minerals are composed of only one element. The element gold often occurs as pure gold nuggets in nature; diamonds are composed entirely of the element carbon; and sulfur occasionally is found in the free or uncombined state. Most minerals, however, are composed of two or more elements combined chemically, forming a compound. With few exceptions, anyone mineral will always have the same composition regardless of where it is found or how it was formed. A mineral's physical properties, such as color, hardness, and luster, are also fairly constant. Color, however, may vary widely because of impurity discolorations. Thus, quartz which is colorless in the pure form occurs in various colors -rose, smoky, milky, purple and yellow.
Most rocks are mixtures of minerals adhering in a rigid mass, although some may be formed exclusively of one mineral. The rock granite: for example, is composed of the minerals orthoclase and quartz. The percentage of quartz in granite may range from a small fraction to over half of the rock, and it is still granite. In addition to orthoclase and quartz, other minerals may also be present, but the rock is still called granite. Marble, on the other hand, is composed almost exclusively of the mineral calcite.
The physical appearance of a given rock will differ as the percentages of its constituent minerals change; two rocks that look completely unrelated, at first glance, may actually have the same name.
Geologists have subdivided rocks into three groups, based on their mode of origin. These are: (1) igneous, (2) sedimentary, and (3) metamorphic.
Igneous rocks are defined as those that are formed through the solidification of magma or lava, rock in the molten form. The formation of this molten rock is not completely understood, but it seems to originate within approximately fifty miles of the earth's surface and is apparently formed by tremendous, compressional forces which are aided by the pressure and heat that exist at these depths. Once formed, magma may work its way toward the surface and erupt as volcanoes and lava flows or it may gradually cool and solidify before reaching the surface.
As magma cools, mineral grains begin to form and gradually the entire body is hardened into a crystalline mass. The size of the individual grains of mineral material in the rock will range from microscopic to several inches across, depending on the rate of cooling. The faster magma cools, the smaller the mineral grains will be in the resultant rock. One can usually recognize the slow-cooling rocks by the fact that their grains are visible to the unaided eye; whereas, the grains in the fast-cooling rocks, such as those forming volcanoes and lava flows, are usually invisible.
The rate at which magma cools is controlled by the thickness of the overlying, insulating, rock layers. If the magma cools and solidifies deep in the ground, the resultant rock will be coarse-grained because overlying layers will decrease the rate at which heat can escape from the magma pocket. The grains in those rocks that form by the cooling of lava at the surface of the ground will be invisible because the heat of the lava will be lost rapidly to the atmosphere. The invisible-grained, igneous rocks are sometimes difficult to tell from certain sedimentary rocks whose grains are also invisible. However, the slow cooling, visible-grained rocks that form deep within the earth are easily told from all other types of rocks by their coarse, mozaic texture formed by the interlocking of their sparkly crystals of v2riously colored minerals.
Another distinctive feature of those that solidify at the earth's surface is their spongy or bubbly texture which is a result of the releC1se of pressure that the lava experiences during eruption. This reduction of pressure allows the gases that are dissolved in the lava to escape much in the way carbon dioxide gas escapes from soda pop when the cap is removed. Once this gas is released from solution, it begins to form bubbles which expand but are unable to escape from the lava before it hardens, because at the surface of the ground the molten rock cools rapidly. Since the combination of rapid cooling and release of pressure is responsible for the spongy texture, it is easy to see why the rocks which solidify at the. earth's surface commonly are bubbly while those that form deep within the earth never are.
Sedimentary rocks are those formed by the consolidation of the debris formed by the weathering of rock such as sand, gravel, clay, silt, and soluble weathering products such as calcium carbonate. These materials are carried away by streams, wind, glaciers, and ground water and are deposited in layers. The weight of later, overlying sediments, plus the cementing action of soluble minerals carried into the layer of loose sediment by percolating waters tend to consolidate the debris into a solid layer of rock. During the hardening process, the original layering is retained, which results in the stratification of the rock. Thus, all sedimentary rocks are stratified in layers which are originally horizontal but may later be tilted at steep angles by various forces acting within the earth.
One of the more common of the sedimentary rocks found in Kansas is limestone, which is consolidated calcium carbonate that was precipitated from sea water. Usually the calcium carbonate is taken from the water by organisms to form skeletons or shells which, after the death of the animals, will drop to the bottom of the ocean and later harden into rock. One variety of limestone common in Western Kansas is chalk. Chalk is composed of microscopic, calcareous shells of organisms and is softer and less consolidated than the normal limestone.
Limestone comes in so many colors and textures that they are too numerous to mention. With the exception of chalk, they are all hard enough to require a nail to scratch them; however, they are all too soft to scratch glass.
Another sedimentary rock that occurs at many levels throughout the state is shale, consolidated mud or clay. It comes in various colors, but is easily recognized by its dirty appearance and its softness. It is easily scratched with the fingernail, and your fingers become soiled when handling it.
Sandstone is also common in Kansas. It is composed of grains of sand that have been cemented together and is easily recognized by its sugary, granular texture. Most sand is composed of tiny grains of the mineral quartz, which is a hard mineral. Sandstone may be distinguished from some of the granular varieties of limestone by testing its hardness. The quartz grains which form the sandstone will scratch glass while the calcium carbonate forming limestone will not. In many places in the state, a rock known as chert, or flint, is found which is another precipitate, and therefore, some varieties closely resemble limestone. Hardness is its distinguishing feature; the calcium carbonate forming limestone will not scratch glass while chert, a form of quartz, will. Since chert, or flint, and sandstone are both composed of quartz, they will scratch glass, but they are easily distinguished from one another by the fact that the former is a precipitate which is non granular and the latter always has a granular texture.
It is interesting to notice the environments in which the sediments that are the parent materials for each of the above mentioned rocks are deposited. The geologist in studying the processes of erosion and deposition of sediments has learned that sand is usually deposited in the sea near the shore. This results from a decrease in the carrying power of the streams as they enter a standing body of water. To he capable of carrying coarse sand, water must be flowing quite swiftly. Muds and clays, being much finer and lighter, are capable of being carried a greater distance by suspension. Even sluggish waters, great distances from shore, may be laden with muds which will gradually settle out. The materials that are carried the farthest are the soluble minerals such as those that form limestone and chert. These materials may be carried indefinitely if the conditions for precipitation do not exist. There is, therefore, a gradual change in the type of sediment that accumulates on the sea floor outward from the shore. To the geologist, this knowledge has been invaluable in unraveling the sequence of events in the Earth's geologic history.
The many layers of sandstone in Kansas indicate that the shore line of the ancient seas that invaded the mid-continent must have been nearby on several occasions. The abundance of limestone layers, on the other hand, reveal that the seas must have completely invaded Kansas and most of the surrounding states. When a layer of limestone is found deposited on top of shale or shale on top of sandstone, we know that the sea must have been advancing, bringing far from shore deposits into the area. A layer of sandstone on top of shale or shale on top of limestone tells us the sea was retreating, causing the shore line to migrate slowly seaward.
The metamorphic rocks are those that are formed by the alteration of other rocks because of heat and pressure. The changes that may occur in these rocks are varied, but one of the more noticeable is the realignment of the formerly disoriented platy minerals in the parent rock. Platy minerals such as mica will, under pressure, reorient themselves until they are arranged parallel to one another giving the rock a banded appearance and a tendency to split into sheets. Slate is a good example of this type of rock. Although the individual grains are visible in most metamorphic rocks, in slate they are too small to be seen without a microscope and its platy minerals are all perfectly aligned. This gives slate its familiar platy appearance, because when tapped, it breaks parallel to these minerals.
Not all metamorphic rocks possess this plat:' characteristic. Marble, for example, has a crystalline, mozaic texture and possesses no platy minerals. Under pressure and heat, the calcium carbonate in limestone will crystallize into large, interlocking, sparkly grains of calcite. B:' comparing their textures, marble is easily distinguished from its dull, nongranular parent, limestone. But, like limestone, marble will not scratch glass and may be easily scratched with a metal nail.
Kansas has but few metamorphic rocks exposed at its surface. However, in the northeast comer of the state there are many rounded boulders of a pinkish rock known as quartzite which is formed by the metamorphism of sandstone. They are foreign to the state but were carried in by glaciers and dropped as the ice melted. Quartzite is one of the hardest of rocks. It has a sugary texture similar to sandstone, but its grains are fused together making it very resistant to breaking and scratching. The grains in sandstone are often so poorly cemented that they are easily scratched away or broken off.
FEATURES SEEN IN ROCKS
Concretions, nodules, and geodes, found in many of the sedimentary rocks throughout the state, are of interest to geologists. A concretion is formed through the process of cementation in either shales or sandstones. As these rocks are being consolidated, the cementing materials which are being brought
into the deposit by percolating waters are precipitated, forming coatings on the individual grains and sticking them together. If this cementing material becomes concentrated rather than being spread uniformly throughout the sedimentary deposit, it will cause certain small areas in the final rock to be much harder and more resistant to erosion than the rest of the layer.
Such spherical areas of cement concentration are often found surrounding a decaying organism that was buried in the sediment. This presumably is a result of the decay products being liberated into the area immediately adjacent to the organism which causes the chemical environment to be different from the rest of the sedimentary layer and assists in the precipitation of the soluble minerals from the percolating waters. Thus, many concretions contain fossils in their centers. Other times no such fossils are found, and the cause of the formation of these concretions is obscure.
After the concretions are formed, erosion may remove the rest of the sedimentary layer leaving exposed these spherical patches of more resistant rock. Such an area of special interest to Kansans is Rock City, south of Minneapolis, Kansas (cover picture). Here concretions of gigantic size are found; some are nearly 30 feet in diameter. However, concretions are more commonly a few inches to a foot in diameter.
Geodes are cavities in rocks that later become refilled or partially filled by another mineral. Water percolating through the rock precipitates a coating of crystals on the insides of these cavities and may eventually completely fill them. The minerals filling these cavities are often more resistant to erosion than the rocks in which they occur. When this happens, the surrounding rock layer may be eroded away leaving the mineral filled cavities or geodes behind much in the way concretions are. The exteriors of these two resemble each other, but they are easily distinguished by breaking them open. Geodes are usually hollow, whereas concretions are solid throughout.
Nodules are spherical masses composed of minerals precipitated from water during the deposition of the material forming the rock layer in which they are found. Pyrite nodules, for example, are common in shale layers. Pyrite is a metallic looking mineral composed of iron sulfide, often called fool's gold in allusion to its color and luster. The pyrite was precipitated from sea water and was collected in spherical masses on the sea floor at the same time as the material in which they are found was being deposited. These pyrite masses gradually became buried by the mud which formed the shale and were consolidated with it. When the shale is eroded away, the heavier spherical pyrite nodules are left behind. These nodules are often mistaken for metallic meteorites, but they may be distinguished with the use of a magnet. Metallic meteorites have a high free iron content which is attracted to a magnet. Pyrite, on the other hand, being composed of iron chemically combined with sulfur, will not react to a magnet. The more golden color of the pyrite nodules when broken open should also help distinguish them from meteorites.
Other nodules seen in Kansas are the chert nodules that occur in the limestone layers of the Flint Hills. It is the great abundance of these nodules that is responsible for the name "Flint Hills."
Other features seen in the sedimentary rocks of Kansas that are of interest are: fossils which are traces or remains of prehistoric life; ripple marks which are undulations that occur on the top surface of certain sedimentary layers which have resulted from the action of waves or currents in the water or wind that deposited the sediment (Fig. 1); mud cracks which result from the drying out of the mud by exposure to the sun's heat before it became consolidated into shale (Fig. 2).
Fig. 1: Ripple marks preserved on the top surface of a sedimentary layer
Fig. 2: Mud cracks formed in a sedimentary layer before it was consolidated
Fig. 3: The arrows indicate the direction of dip of the sedimentary layers in the midcontinent region. Note that they dip outward from the center of the Ozark Dome.
Exposed at the surface of the earth throughout most of the midcontinent region are sedimentary rocks. Kansas has only a few small patches of igneous and metamorphic rocks at the surface, but there are sizable areas of these rocks in the surrounding states. There are, however, igneous and metamorphic rocks far below the surface of the entire continent. The sedimentary rocks merely form a veneer that blankets an underlying thick layer of ancient, intermelted igneous and metamorphic rocks that forms the continental platform upon which North America rests. This block or platform is exposed at the surface in places where the sedimentary veneer has been eroded away. The largest of these exposures is a vast area known as the Canadian Shield which includes most of Eastern Canada and Northern Minnesota and Wisconsin. Southward across the United States this ancient mass is covered by sedimentary material which thickens until it consists of hundreds of layers and averages a total thickness of about 3,000 feet in Kansas.
There are several other isolated patches within the United States in which this block of rock is exposed. One such area is in Southeastern Missouri where the earth's crust has been pushed upward slightly forming a broad bulge known as the Ozark Dome. The sedimentary layers, as well as the upper surface of the continental block dip or slope outward from the center of the dome in all directions (Fig. 3). This has caused the rock lavers that were originally deposited ' in horizontal sheets to be tilted Very gently westward in Kansas which is on the western flank of this dome. Subsequent erosion of this broad dome has resulted in the gradual thinning of the sedimentary layer as the center of the dome is approached and in the exposure if the igneous continental platform in its center. This erosion has caused the gradual eastward slope of the surface of the State of Kansas even though the rock layers dip or slope westward (Fig. 4) and has formed a series of eastward facing ridges called cuestas on these layers (Fig. 5). The eastern faces of these cuestas are steep, but the west sides, being formed by the top surface of the westward dipping layers, are gentle. The sedimentary veneer in Eastern Kansas has been thinned by erosion to a thickness of about 1,000 feet while the western part of the state has more than 5,000 feet of sedimentary cover. Other areas of exposure of the continental block are in Colorado where the rocks have been flexed sharply into giant folds to form the various ranges of the Rocky Mountains. Erosion of the sedimentary cover from the high parts of these ranges has left the ancient, igneous and metamorphic complex forming the high peaks, with more easily eroded sedimentary rocks to either side forming the foothills. Northward, in the Black Hills of South Dakota, there exists another small dome with igneous and metamorphic rocks exposed in its core; southward in the Arbuckle and Wichita Mountains of Southern Oklahoma, there exist a few small exposures of these same rocks.
THE GEOLOGIC TIME SCALE
All of geologic time, beginning four or five billion years ago, has been divided into intervals known as eras (Table I). The eras are, in turn, subdivided into periods. No two eras have the same number of periods nor are any of the periods of equal duration. The basis for drawing the line between one division and the next was the appearance of a particular fossil form, a major withdrawal of the sea, a period of mountain building or other geologic phenomena.
Geologists had established a geologic time scale long before radioactive dating came into being. Age determinations of the various rocks found throughout the geologic column have been made, and these dates have been added to the time scale. The age of the rocks forming the continental platform is referred to by geologists as being Precambrian - the oldest division of the geologic time scale. Although it is a common practice to refer to this interval of time as the Precambrian, it actually consists of two separate eras - the Archeozoic and the Proterozoic. We now know that the Precambrian began about four to five billion years ago and ended about 500 million years ago. Notice, this leaves only one-half billion years for the remainder of the geologic happenings to occur. About eighty percent of geologic time belongs to the Precambrian; but little is known about this Lime. The rocks of this age are, for the most part, metamorphic and igneous and almost completely devoid of fossils. In the upper part of the Precambrian, a few hardly recognizable fossils are found, but it is not until the beginning of the next era, the Paleozoic, that they occur in abundance.
Fig. 6: Highly fossiliferous limestone-notice that the predominant fossils in this rock are small snails and clams.
About 500 million years ago the Paleozoic era was ushered in with the beginning of a continuous fossil record. From this time to the present, most of the rocks that were deposited contain some fossils, and some rocks are composed almost entirely of fossil shells (Fig. 6). The fossils found in the rocks of the lower part of the Paleozoic are shells of invertebrate animals. Similar animals dominated the Upper Paleozoic, but there is evidence that fishes, amphibians, and reptiles were all in existence by the end of this era. About 200 million years ago, the Paleozoic Era ended and the Mesozoic Era began with the rapid domination of the earth by the reptiles. Invertebrates still existed as well as fishes and amphibians, but throughout the Mesozoic the reptiles flourished. The abrupt extinction of many forms of reptiles and the rapid takeover by mammals ended the Mesozoic and began the Cenozoic Era about 70 million years ago. We are now living in the Cenozoic Era, which has been dominated by the mammals since its beginning.
The sedimentary veneer that covers the Precambrian igneous and metamorphic rocks has been accumulating layer on layer throughout Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic times. The layers near the bottom are the oldest and belong to the Lower Paleozoic while those near the top are the youngest and, in many places, consist of Cenozoic materials. In most places across the country, younger layers have been eroded away, exposing layers of older periods below. In places where erosion hc1s been most intense, such as in the center of the Ozark, the oldest of all rocks, the Precambrian, are exposed. Outward from the center of the dome there has been less erosion; the sedimentary veneer gets thicker; and the rocks exposed at the surface of the ground are younger (Fig. 7). Exposed in a broad ring surrounding the Precambrian rocks of Southeastern Missouri are the Lower Paleozoic layers; the younger Upper Paleozoic rocks are exposed farther out. The Pennsylvanian rocks are exposed in a wide belt across the state forming the Osage Cuestas, and west of there, the youngest of the Paleozoic divisions, the Permian rocks, are exposed in the broad Flint Hills belt. Westward still, rocks of Mesozoic age are exposed in the Smoky and Blue Hills areas. On top of the Mesozoic and exposed still farther outward from the center of the dome are the Cenozoic rocks of the High Plains. The youngest rocks of all are the stream gravels, glacial deposits, and wind-blown sands of the Quaternary period which is the youngest division of the Cenozoic Era. These loosely consolidated materials, being recent deposits, cover much of the older layers. The glacial deposits are confined to the northeastern part of the state while Quaternary stream gravels occur along all of the major streams in Kansas.
Fossils are any traces or remains of prehistoric life. One generally thinks of a fossil as being a bone of a large animal, such as a dinosaur, that has turned to stone. But petrification is not necessary for fossilization, nor does the animal have to be a huge vertebrate. Often a fossil is merely a tiny shell of a prehistoric snail or clam. Occasionally, fossils of less antiquity are preserved unaltered; that is, the shell is in the same form as it was when the animal was living.
A fossil may be merely an imprint in a rock. Fossil lea yes are commonly found as imprints in shale. Footprints of animals of the past are also imprint fossils. For demonstration purposes, "artificial fossils" may be made by making leaf imprints in plaster or mud.
A third and most common type of fossil is that in which the organic matter has been replaced by some other mineral material. Petrified wood, for example, is formed by the original wood material being replaced by quartz.
Fossils of the invertebrate animals are the most useful to the geologist because they are whole and perfectly recognizable in the field as they are collected. The large vertebrates, on the other hand usually require months of digging to completely uncover, and many more months of preparation are required before they are completely assembled. The invertebrates are useful in matching or correlating rock layers of one area with those of another because of their great abundance and their ease of collecting and identifying.
Many of the sedimentary rocks in Kansas are abundantly fossiliferous, and the types of fossils found in the various sections of the state are controlled by the geologic age of the rocks exposed in these different areas. Because the rocks exposed in Eastern Kansas are Upper Paleozoic in age, the fossils are almost exclusively invertebrates, mostly marine. These consist of brachiopods, bryozoans, clams, snails, trilobites, fusulinids, and corals (Fig. 8). Fishes, amphibians, and reptiles lived during this time but they were not as numerous and are less commonly preserved.
The rocks in this area also contain plant fossils (Fig. 9) which indicate the seas that deposited the limestones and shales must have withdrawn for long periods of time to enable trees and other vegetation to exist.
Fig. 9: Fossil plants from the Pennsylvanian rocks of Eastern Kansas
Fig. 10: Fossil leaf from the Cretaceous rocks of the Smoky Hills area
When mammal fossils are discovered, they are found in the Quaternary gravels along the streams because they did not exist when the ancient, bedrock layers were deposited in this region. In the Mesozoic rocks of the Smoky Hills and Blue Hills region, invertebrate fossils are also found as are plant fossils (Fig. 10), but reptile fossils occur in great numbers. These layers are for the most part marine and so the reptiles that are in the rocks are aquatic forms. Fossil fishes (Fig. 11) are also abundant as well as flying reptiles that evidently flew too far out and died at sea. In the Cenozoic rocks forming the High Plains, the dominant fossils are bones of ancient mammals.
LIST OF MATERIALS AVAILABLE from the State Geological Survey of Kansas, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. These are free on request to Kansas teachers.
Kansas Rocks and Minerals, by Laura Lu Tolsted and Ada Swineford
Set of 20 Kansas Rocks and Minerals
The Kansas Scene, by Grace Muilenburg
Geologic Timetable and Kansas Rock Chart
Generalized Geologic Map and Cross Section
Ground-Water Regions Map
Major Streams in Kansas Map
List of Publications of the State Geological Survey of Kansas
Suggested References on Geological Sciences:
Field Guide to Rocks and Minerals, by F. H. Pough, Houghton Mifflin & Co., Boston, Massachusetts, 1955.
Fieldbook of Common Rocks and Minerals, by F. B. Loomis, Putnam's & Sons, Inc., New York, 1956.
Rock Book, by C. L. and M. A. Fenton, Doubleday & Co., Inc., Garden City, New York, 1940.
Rocks and Their Stories, by C. L. and M. A. Fenton, Doubleday & Co., Garden City, New York, 1951.
Fossil Book-A Record of Prehistoric Life, by C. L. and M. A. Fenton, Doubleday & Co., Inc., Garden City, New York, 1958.
THE 1964 WORKSHOP IN CONSERVATION will again be conducted in two sections, from June 1 to June 19, and from June 22 to July 10, inclusive. As in the past several years, the Workshop will cover water, soil, grassland, wildlife conservation and conservation teaching.
There will be lectures, demonstrations, discussion groups, films, slides, field trips, projects, and individual and group reports. You may enroll for undergraduate or graduate credit.
The first section is open to any interested person; there are no prerequisites. Since the second section is devoted almost entirely to the production of teaching aids (e.g. preparation of copy for an issue of The Kansas School Naturalist), enrollment is limited to those who already have an established interest in conservation education and who have some teaching experience.
Fee for first section (3 hours credit) : Residents of Kansas, $25.95; non-residents-undergraduates, $50.10; graduates, $45.30. Second section (3 hours credit): same rates.
For other information write the director, Thomas A. Eddy, Department of Biology, KSTC, Emporia, Kansas.
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