Common Prickly Pear Cactus
ABOUT THIS ISSUE
Published by The Kansas State Teachers College of Emporia
Prepared and Issued by The Department of Biology, with the cooperation of the Division of Education
Editor: John Breukelman, Department of Biology
Editorial Committee: Ina M. Borman, Helen M. Douglass, Gilbert A. Leisman, David Parmelee, Dixon Smith
Online format by: Terri Weast
The Kansas School Naturalist is sent upon request, free of charge, to Kansas teachers and others interested in nature education. Back numbers are sent free as long as the supply lasts, except Vol. 5, No. 3, Poisonous Snakes of Kansas. Copies of this issue may be obtained for 25 cents each postpaid. Send orders to The Kansas School Naturalist, Department of Biology, Kansas State Teachers College, Emporia, Kansas.
The Kansas School Naturalist is published in November, January, March, and May of each year by The Kansas State Teachers College, Twelfth Avenue and Commercial Street, Emporia, Kansas. Second-class mail privileges authorized at Emporia, Kansas.
The drawing on page 4, and all photographs, were prepared by the author. The cartoon on page 6 was drawn by Teresa Duggan, freshman assistant in the Department of Biology, KSTC.
The plural of cactus is either cacti or cactuses, according to most dictionaries. Since most botanists prefer cacti, this is the form we are using in this issue of The Kansas School Naturalist.
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
Formerly with the Department of Biology, technical information concerning the cacti may be addressed to Mr. Stephens, in care of the Kansas State Teachers College; requests for Department of Biology, State Teachers College, Emporia, Kansas.
Air conditioning! That is what most people think of when the hot, dry days of summer come along. But those are the best days for cacti. You do not have to brave the heat of the open Kansas plains to see the cacti in their greatest beauty. Twice a year these strange plants put on a display fit for a king. First -about the middle of June, before the hot weather arrives, the plants are covered with yellow, yellow with a red center, or salmon pink flowers. Second -about the middle of September to the first of October, when the days begin to cool, the candelabras of prickly pears with their red fruits extend above the browning grasses.
This issue of The Kansas School Naturalist includes only the cacti of Kansas, and describes all the recognized species native to the state. There is some difference of opinion among botanists about the naming and grouping of species. Only a cactus specialist can deal with ' the technical details of classifying them. The most simple grouping is used here.
I wish to acknowledge valuable assistance, in the preparation of the manuscript and in various other ways, given by Dr. James S. Wilson, Assistant Professor of Biology, Kansas State Teachers College.
The prickly pear cactus, which includes at least two species, is found on uncultivated ground throughout the state. In eastern Kansas, it grows mostly on rocky soil, either sandstone or limestone. If woods are nearby, cactus plants may grow under the trees. In western Kansas, cactus is found in well drained, sandy soil, but not often in the shifting sand dunes. It is not uncommon to see a short-grass pasture nearly covered with patches of cacti. These patches range from a foot to more than ten feet across, and eight to ten inches high.
If you live in eastern Kansas and go west to see the cacti in fruit, be prepared for a mild surprise. There
is great variation in appearance, even within one species. Cacti growing in shaded areas produce narrower and thinner joints, have fewer and shorter spines, have longer fruit, are more slender, and are less highly colored.
So far, we have mentioned only the prickly pear; before we proceed, we had better find out what a cactus is, for not every sharp or spiny plant is a cactus. Should you sit down on the ground and jump suddenly with a loud exclamation - the cause may not be a cactus at aU. You may have discovered, quite without intention, a sandbur, cocklebur, puncture vine, buffalo bur, or anyone of a number of other spiny plants that do not belong to the cactus group. Nor is the common yucca (soap weed), a cactus, in spite of the sharp needles on the ends of the leaves. It is wise not to back into one while photographing, or studying a cactus. The cactus plant differs from these other spiny plants in that it has fleshy stems, usually without leaves, spines arranged spirally on the stem, similar sepals and petals, the young fruit below the sepals, and with only one seed cavity.
A mature and a young joint of a prickly pear cactus.
The cacti of Kansas may be divided into three growth forms: (1) low growing with flat, wide stems; (2) tree-like with cylindrical stems; (3) ball-shape, with globular stems. The main part of a cactus plant is the stem, even though it may have a leaf-like appearance. In the cacti that belong to the genus Opuntia (which includes the prid1y pear) the sections of the stem are called joints. In the small "pin cushion" cacti, the
main bulk of the plant is the stem, which may grow singly, or in a cluster. The stems of the "tree" cactus will not be confused with leaves, for they are branched - similar to the stems of a bush. All cactus stems have chlorophyll and, therefore, manufacture food, the function - usually carried on by the leaves.
On a cactus stem, you will find the spines, which are modified leaves, in clusters growing out of spots called areoles. These areoles are arranged spirally on the stem. The long spines are sharp and barbed on the end, but if you think only the long spines can penetrate, you should stick your finger (only don't do it!) past the end of the spine and touch the areole. You may, or may not, feel a slight pain, but look at the end of your finger. It will be filled with tiny brownish stickers, called glochids. These glochids are real trouble makers for the cactus hunter because of their small size.
In season, you may find flowers somewhere along the stem, usually at the end. You cannot easily distinguish the sepals from the petals. The cactus uses both in attracting insects.
Below the sepals and petals is the ovary. It is somewhat tubular and may, or may not, be covered with spines. It may also have some small leaves on it during the early stages. If you are looking for cactus leaves, you had better be out there when the stem joints are very young. The leaves are small, usually
narrow and pointed, and grow from the lower part of the areole. Before the joint has reached full size, these leaves will have fallen. This is considered as a water saving habit - even cacti believe in, and practice conservation!
The stem is an important water holding device. The inside is filled with water storage cells used by the
plant during dry periods. During a drought, you may see that the joints of a prickly pear are wrinkled,
showing that they have shrunk as a result of loss of water. The joints swell to normal size on the day after
a rain. In the fall, many cacti wrinkle and wither, and no matter how much water is given to them, the storage cells will not fill. However, the next spring will find them full of water and the joints without wrinkles. The outside of the stem is tough and covered with a layer of wax which retards evaporation.
Tuberous roots of a prickly pear cactus
The roots of most Kansas cacti are quite shallow and commonly spread several feet from the center of the plant. The prickly pear has from one to many tuberous roots. These tubers are eaten by insects and may have disappeared by the time the patch has reached a diameter of two feet. By this time, the joints in contact with the ground have given rise to fibrous roots. The roots of the "pin cushion" cactus consist of one long tap root and many fibrous roots branching from it. The "tree" cactus roots go deep into sandy soil, but are more shallow and spreading in harder soils.
Many animals use cactus plants as their homes, and are certainly well protected by the thick stems and sharp spines. The wood rat, for instance, collects sticks, weeds, and trash of all sorts and piles them up in the center of a cactus patch. His home is beneath this pile. Mice often build their nests beneath a cactus plant, and jackrabbits sit in the little shade the plant affords. With mice and other rodents around, it is no wonder that the rattlesnakes make themselves at home, too.
Cactus fruits are used as food by animals such as rabbits, coyotes, skunks, raccoons, rats, mice, and insects of many kinds. Pigs also are fond of the fruits. Of course, if you wish to try cactus fruits yourself, be
sure first to remove the tiny orchids.
Many people enjoy a cactus gardent and plants may be purchased in stores. Some of these so-called cacti, however, are not cacti but other spiny plants. Nevertheless, they all make attractive plantings. If wild cactus plants are collected for an outdoor garden, it is best to forget the main roots. Cut off the portion of the plant you wish, take it home, put it on the shelf in the garage and forget it for a week. This gives the cut surface a chance to heal and the plant a better chance of surviving. After the week has passed, place the stem on the
ground and push a small amount of sandy soil around it, but do not cover it. Water it enough to wet the soil, but be careful about giving it much water after that.
Plants may be grown from seeds, which are slow in germinating and may take six or eight weeks to sprout. It may be necessary to use a small amount of Semesan, or other seed disinfectant in the soil to keep the seeds from molding. This can be obtained at most seed stores. The soil of a seed plot should be a mixture of three parts of sand and one part of good soil. After the seeds have been planted to about a depth of a quarter of an inch in the soil, cover the plot with a piece of burlap. Water the plot as you would any other seed planting. Do not remove the burlap until the seeds start to germinate.
COMMON PRICKLY PEAR
Opuntia compressa, Opuntia humifusa, Opuntia rafinesquei
Joints flat, obovate (egg-shaped with the large end out) to circular, 2 to 5 inches long, 1 1/2 to 4 inches broad. Spines none to three on an areole, to B2 inches long, white, or white with a reddish-brown base. Flowers yellow or yellow with a red center, 21. inches across. Fruit fleshy, clavate (tenpin-shaped) to oval,
1 to 21. inches long, ). to n inches thick, pale pink to dark brick-red. Seeds yellow, flat, roughly circular, about 3/16 inch across.
The common prickly pear, with all of its many forms and variations, is the best known cactus in Kansas. It grows in all parts of the state and is the principal flat-jointed cactus of the eastern two-thirds. In the western one-third of Kansas, it lives among other species and may hybridize with them. Those with large tuberous roots are often called Opttntia macrorhiza.
The plant is low and spreading; some of the joints lie flat on the ground. Most plants have spines on the upper margin and nearly half way down on the flat surface, but some, especially in the shade, have no spines at all. This, as in most species of flat-jointed Opttntias, has the longest spines at the top of the joint, with
the spine length decreasing toward the center of the joint. The glochids are about 1/8 inch long and present on all areoles. However, joints partly covered with soil may have glochids a half inch long.
Some joints have as many as eight waxy flowers on the upper margin. The petals are broad and surround the many stamens. At the base of the "petals" is the cylindrical ovary, which may have a few narrow leaves on it. Inside are from 25 to 100 flat seeds with small water storage cells clinging tightly to them.
NEW MEXICAN PRICKLY PEAR
Joints flat, obovate to oval, 3 to 6 inches long, 2 to 4 inches broad. Spines 1 to 6 per areole, up to 1 3/4 inches long, white or brown and white variegated. Flowers yellow, sometimes salmon-pink, 2 1/2 inches across. Fruit fleshy, obovate, 1 3/4 inches long and 3/4 inch across, wine-colored. Seeds yellow, flat, about 3/16 inch across.
This prickly pear lives mainly in the western one-third of the state where it intermingles with Opuntia compressa. It is low and spreading, and slightly taller than the prev ious species. In many specimens, some of the joints are diamond-shaped. It grows in the open, short grass pastures and forms solid mats up to 10
feet across. In rocky soil, the plants do not grow as large as in sandy soil.
Spines are found on the upper 1/2 to 3/4 of the joint. Usually, two of the spines are long and spread outward. The smaller spines are turned downward and may lie close to the joint. The glochids are yellow-brown, but may be golden yellow on the young joints.
Several flowers are produced on the upper margin of the joints. They are usually yellow. but a few are pink. Later, the wine-colored fruits are arranged like a row of small goblets on the edge of the joint. On the upper end of the fruit is the old flower scar. In this species it is nearly flat and smooth, perhaps with a few lines
on it, but in most other species the scar is deep and rough.
Opuntia phaeacantha is easily confused with Opuntia compressa, but can be distinguished by the deep wine-colored fruit, the presence of a few diamond-shaped joints, and its larger size and heavier spines. These characteristics make it a favorite home of the wood rat.
Joints flat, obovate to circular, 2 to 4 inches long, 1 1/2 to 3 inches broad. Aerole spines 6 to 14, 1/4 to 1 1/2 inches long, white to red-brown. Flowers yellow to orange, 2 1/2 inches across. Fruit oval, 3/4 to 1 inch
long, 1/2 inch in diameter, dry, spiny. Seeds light straw-colored, flat, about 1/4 inch across.
This cactus is native in the western part of Kansas and is easily distinguished from the other species of Opuntia. It has spines on all areoles, which are quite close together. Some of the shorter spines may
overlap those of a nearby areole. The surface around the areole is usually raised a trifle so as to give the joint a "bumpy" appearance. One of the spines on each areole is longer than the others and extends outward and downward, except on the margin, where it points outward. The small spines point downward. The color of the long spines varies from white to red-brown with a yellowish tip. Occasionally, a plant will be found which has long hair-like spines at the base of the joint, especially when near the ground. Some of these are 4 inches long and are flexible enough to be wrapped around the finger. The plants with these long spines are often called Opuntia tricophora.
The plant is small, 2 to 4 feet across, and grows in the same habitat as the other Opuntias. In most cases, it can be identified at a distance by the gray color, caused by the many white spines.
If there is any doubt as to the identity, it can be accurately determined by the fruit, which is dry and spiny. Small mammals eat the seeds by opening the fruit at the lower end where there are no spines. The fruits mature earlier than those of the fleshy-fruited species. The flower scar is usually somewhat flat with a flared spiny rim around it. The seeds are larger than those of the two previous species - about 1/4 inch across and are packed tightly in the fruit. There may be 40 to 100 seeds in these small fruits.
Joints small, cylindrical to obovoid, 1 to 2 inches long, 3/4 to 1 inch thick. Spines 5 to 10 per areole, up to 5/8 inch long, white, cream-colored, or red-brown. Flowers yellow, 2 inches across. Fruits dry and spiny - rare. Seeds flat, yellow about 3/16 inch across.
The fragile cactus gets its name from the fact that the end joint is so loosely connected to the rest of the plant that an animal walking by may dislodge a joint, catch it in the fur , and carry it some distance. When the joint comes in contact with the soil, it may take root and start a new plant. Perhaps this is the main method of reproduction, since mature seed-bearing fruits are seldom found. Locally, this species is called a "jumping cactus," although it is not closely related to the "jumping cactus" of Arizona. The joints often "jump" as high as a person's knee when kicked by the foot as the person walks through the grass where these cacti grow.
The plants are about 6 inches high and form dense clumps up to a foot across. Small plants are found all around the larger ones, because the slightest touch will break a joint from the plant. By the middle of October, all remaining joints are attached more firmly to the plant.
The spines on new joints are brownish and heavily barbed. There are 2 or 3 long spines on the areole and 4 to 6 smaller ones, all of which extend outward. If the big ones don't get you, the little ones will! The glochids form a yellow, fuzzy mat at the base of the spines and are not as disconcerting to humans as are those of the other Opuntias.
The fragile cactus lives in the western half of the state, but is commonly overlooked because of its small size. Too, it seems to grow best in the taller grass. Many people find it first, not from seeing it, but from feeling a sharp pain in the lower leg.
Joints cylindrical, main trunk up to 3 inches in diameter, smaller branches 1 inch in diameter. Spines 6 to 24 per areole, up to 3/4 inch long, white, sometimes with a purplish base, covered with a white papery sheath. Flower rose-purple, 2 inches across. Fruit orbicular with flattened end, tuberculated, yellow, drying
to a straw-color. Seeds yellow with slight greenish cast, flat, 1/8 inch across.
This is the "cane" cactus of Kansas - the only one which produces a woody stem. The curio stores of the Southwest are full of cactus canes, cactus lamps, cactus jewelry boxes, and cactus ash trays. Although these are not usually made from our tree cactus, ours does have the same mesh-work in the wood.
The tree cactus is not common in Kansas, but may be found in Morton County, the extreme southwest county. There is always some question about plants being native when found in other parts of the state. Three plants in Ellsworth County are said to have been brought in on the wool of sheep in the early days when stock was driven from the Southwest, across Kansas, to the nearest railroad. Many of these plants are brought into the state for planting in flower gardens.
The green stem is covered with elongated, laterally flattened tubercles. The areoles are on the upper end of these ridges. White wooly glochids cover the areole and the spines emerge from among them. These spines point in all directions, with 4 to 6 of them being long and covered with a thin sheath. At times, this sheath is all too thin!
By late summer, the fruits on the ends of the whorled branches have lost their small spines and turned a bright yellow. Later they dry and fall to the ground, taking with them the 75 to 300 seeds.
This cactus, because of its rarity in the state, should not be removed from its native home.
Plants solitary or in clusters, globular, 1 to 5 inches high, 2 to 3 1/2 inches in diameter. Tubercles extending in all directions, grooved on the upper side, tipped with spines. Spines 12 to 24 per areole, 3 to 6 of these are brownish central spines 1/2 inch long, 9 to 18 are shorter, white lateral spines 1/4 inch long. Flowers pink to purple, 1 1/2 inches across. Fruits green, sometimes tinged with brown, ellipsoid, 1/2 to 3/4 inch long, 3/8 to 5/8 inch in diameter. Seeds brown, finely pitted, 1/16 inch long.
The best time to find this cactus is in June when the purplish flowers blaze forth on the prairie. The single-stemmed plants are small and cannot be found easily in the grass. However, the larger plants of 10 to 20 stems show plainly as a dark mound. It is common in the western half of Kansas, but also occurs farther
Each stem is covered with nipple-like tubercles which bear a crown of spines on the end. The immature tubercles have white, radiating spines, but as they mature, 3 to 6 brown or black spines appear in the center. One of these central spines usually points "straight out;" the others point upward.
The flowers are produced at the top of the stem between the tubercles. The pointed petals spread to form a broad funnel-shaped flower which opens during the day and closes at night. It continues thus for 3 or 4 days.
By the time the fruit is mature, new tubercles have been formed at the top of the plant. This growth pushes the fruit sidewise so it may appear to have grown on the side. These fruits often form a ring around the top, depending entirely on the amount of growth. They contain from 100 to 350 small, brown, pitted seeds.
Mammillaria vivipara and Mammillaria radiosa are often considered as two species, but in Kansas, the graduation between the two is too gradual for one to be able to distinguish them completely.
MISSOURI PIN CUSHION
Plants solitary or in clusters, flat-topped globular, 1 to 2 inches high, 1 1/2 to 3 inches across, grooved tubercles extending in all directions, tipped with 10 to 20 radiating white spines, central spines rarely present. Flowers greenish yellow, sometimes with a pink cast, 1 1/4 inch across, petals pointed. Fruit bright red, ovoid, 3/8 inch long. Seeds black, irregular, finely pitted.
Many people walk over the top of this cactus and do not see it. At times, it is nearly flu sh with the ground, its flattened top seldom exceeding 2 inches above the ground. It is the common pin cushion cactus of the Flint Hills, but may be found throughout the state. Its spines are not as rigid as those of most cacti, in fact, they are often bent. Since it has no central spines "sticking out" it is not as formid able as the other ball cacti.
This plant is often hidden by tall grass and the flower does not tell of its location, for it blends with the surroundings. The flower is produced at the end of the stem, but as in the other ball cacti, the new growth pushes the maturing fruits to the side. It can be distinguished by the yellowish flower and the brilliant red fruit. At first the fruits are green and hardly discernable among the tubercles. But by the first of November, they have turned red. They remain on the plant throughout the winter, and even in May when the next year's flowers are wide open, these red fruits may still remain. It may be difficult for small mammals to get them because they are down between the tubercles, whose radiating spines form a network above the fruit.
Mammillaria missouriensisand Mammiiaria similis are now considered by most authorities as the same species, so they have not been separated here.
Plants single or in clusters, conical or globular, 2 or 3 inches high, 1 1/4 to 2 1/2 inches in diameter. Areoles on 11 to 15 lengthwise ribs. Spines 15 to 23 per areole, white, red-purple, or variegated, none to 3 central spines, 15 to 22 lateral spines. Flowers on areoles near the base, not more than half way up, yellow-green, 1 1/4 inches across. Fruit ellipsoid, green, spiny. Seeds 1/16 inch long, black rough.
This plant is found in Kansas only along the extreme western edge. Its small size and yellow-green flower make it inconspicuous. It grows best in sandy or gravelly soil on flat land or on rather steep slopes.
Instead of having individual tubercles like tile other ball cacti, they are fused into straight or slightly spiralled ribs extending from top to bottom. The common number of ribs is 13.
The areoles are slightly elliptical and bear the lateral spines along the edge. The central spines arise out of a tuft of white, wooly glochids. On some plants, these spines are 3/4 inch long and slightly curved upward, while other plants have short central spines or none at all. The color of the spines, both laterel and central, varies from pure white to entirely red-purple.
The fragrant flowers are produced in early June on the lower portion of the ribs. Some plants produce single flowers, while others produce groups in a ring around the base of the plant. As the fruit develops, it extends outward from the rib and may be broken off by passing animals. However, if anything gets close to the long-spined variety - it will not stay long!
These plants make attractive house plants; however, since they are so uncommon in Kansas, they should not be taken from their native habitat. Even with cacti, we should practice Conservation.
THINGS TO DO
1. Place a few drops of water on a cactus joint and notice that the waxy surface will not absorb it.
2. Peel the epidermis from one side of a joint, place it beside one that is not peeled. Examine them the next day. What has happened to the one that was peeled?
3. Locate a cactus that has a white "mold" on the lower part of the joints. Smear some of this white material and note the red color. This is not a mold, but the white protective covering of the cochineal insect. Even today, this red juice is used as a dye by some people.
4. Find a joint, part of which is yellow. Split it open with a long-bladed knife and find the cause. If you find a larva inside, it is probably that of the darkling beetle.
5. What is the greatest number of fruits you can find on one joint?
6. How many shapes and colors of fruits can you find? (Especially in western Kansas)
7. Start a cactus garden in the school room. Beware of spines! Children and spines often get together!
8. Examine the open flower of a prickly pear on the plant. Why do the stamens move constantly?
9. Dig up the roots and see the size. Could they store water and food?
10. Scrape, or peel, the tiny glochids from a ripe fruit. Eat the fruit, but remember it is full of hard seeds.
11. Make some cactus jelly - it is a stickery and sticky job, but the result is worth the effort. (Not suggested for a first grade!)
Cactus Jelly - Recipe: Remove glochids from fruits, put fruits in a kettle and cover them with water. Crush fruits and cook until tender. Pour off juice and save it. Cover the fruits again with water, cook, pour off juice again and save it. A third cooking may be necessary. This juice will be thick, so thin it with water.
2 1/2 cup juice, 3/4cup water, 1/4 cup lemon juice, one package of pectin, 5 cups sugar. Follow the directions on the pectin box.
12. Take colored pictures of the flowers and fruits. Perhaps some member of the class has been in the Southwest and has pictures of the cacti from there. Compare these pictures.
13. Just a few words of warning if you plan to hunt cacti!
a. Remember that areas of cactus growth are also areas for rattlesnakes. No need to say more!
b. Be sure to keep your mind on the sharpness of the spines and glochids, even leather gloves are not ahvays a help.
c. Remember that a pair of forceps, a needle, and a disinfectant are valuable assistants.
BENSON, LYMAN. 1950. The Cacti of Arizona. The University of Arizona Press, Tucson. Illus. 134 pp.
BOISSEVAIN, CHARLES H. and CAROL DAVIDSON. 1940. Colorado Cacti. Abbey Garden Press, Pasadena. Illus. 71 pp.
MANNING, REG. 1957. What Kinda Cactus Izzat? Reganson Cartoon Books, Phoenix, Arizona. Illus. 107 pp.
MARSHALL, W. TAYLOR. 1953. Arizona's Cactuses. Desert Botanical Garden of Arizona, Bulletin No.1, Phoenix,. Illus. 116 pp.
STEVENS, WILLIAM CHASE. 1948. Kansas Wild Flowers. University of Kansas Press, Lawrence. Illus. 463 pp.
The Department of Biology is sponsoring its fifth Audubon Screen Tour Series during the current school year. The dates were somewhat earlier than usual this year, so that only one number remains. Dr. O.S. Pettingill, Jr., Cornell University Ornithologist, will present "Tip O' the Mitten," March 29, 1962, at 7:30 p.m., at Albert Taylor Hall, KSTC. Most of this film was taken at the Univeristy of Michigan Biological Station, located in Northern Michigan.
Oct. 1954, Window Nature Study;
Dec. 1954, Wildlife in Winter;
Feb. 1955, Childrens' Books for Nature Study (First in a series);
April 1955, Let's Go Outdoors;
Oct. 1955, Fall Wildflowers;
Dec. 1955, Snow;
Feb. 1956, Spring Wildflowers;
April 1956, Turtles in Kansas;
Oct. 1956, Hawks in Kansas;
Dec. 1956, Childrens' Books for Nature Study (Second in the series);
Feb. 1957, Life in a Pond;
April 1957, Spiders;
Oct. 1957, Along the Roadside;
Dec. 1957, An Outline for Conservation Teaching in Kansas;
Feb. 1958, Trees;
April 1958, Summer Wildflowers;
Oct. 1958, Watersheds in Kansas;
Dec. 1958, Let's Build Equipment;
Feb. 1959, Poisonous Snakes of Kansas;
April 1959, Life in a Stream;
Oct. 1959, Field Trips;
Dec. 1959, Conservation Arithmetic;
Feb. 1960, The Sparrow Family;
April 1960, Measures and Weights;
Nov. 1960, Let's Experiment;
Jan. 1961, Recent Science Books for Children;
May 1961, The F.B. and Rena G. Ross Natural History Reservation;
Nov. 1961, Rhythms in Nature.
Those printed in boldfaced type are still available, free of charge except Poisonous Snakes of Kansas, which is sold for 25¢ per copy postpaid, to pay for the increased printing costs due to the color plates.
The out-of-print issues may be found in many school and public libraries in Kansas.
IT IS NOT TOO EARLY to plan to attend the 1962 Workshop in Conservation, which will be a part of
the 1962 Summer Session of the Kansas State Teachers College of Emporia, during June and July.
As in the past several years, the Workshop will cover water, soil, grassland, and wildlife conservation, with emphasis throughout on conservation teaching. Such topics as geography and climate of Kansas, water resources, soil erosion problems and control, grass as a resource, bird banding, wildflowers, conservation clubs, and conservation teaching in various grades will be discussed. There will be lectures, demonstrations, discussion groups, films, slides, field trips, projects, and individual and group reports. You may enroll for undergraduate or graduate credit.
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