KSN - Vol 6, No 1 - Field Trips

THE COVER PICTURE shows Dr. John T. Conover giving an outdoor lecture on the zonation of seaweeds. He is speaking to a group of Emporia State students, at the Institute of Marine Science, Port Aransas, Texas. This was a part of the Easter va­cation trip referred to on page 6, under the direction of Robert F. Clarke, Assist­ant Professor of Biology, at the right end of the group.

Volume 6, Number 1 - October 1959

FIELD TRIPS

by John Breukelman

Published by The Kansas State Teachers College of Emporia

Prepared and Issued by The Department of Biology, with the cooperation of the Division of Education

Editor: John Breukelman, Department of Biology

Editorial Committee: Ina M. Borman, Robert F. Clarke, Helen M. Douglass, Gilbert A. Leisman, Dixon Smith

Online format by: Terri Weast

The Kansas School Naturalist is sent upon request, free of charge, to Kansas teachers and others interested in nature education. Back numbers are sent free as long as the supply lasts, except Vol. 5, No.3, Poisonous Snakes of Kansas. Copies of this issue may be obtained for 25 cents each postpaid. Send orders to The Kansas School Naturalist, Department of Biology, State Teachers College, Emporia, Kansas.

The Kansas School Naturalist is published in October, December, February, and April of each year by The Kansas State Teachers Col­lege, Twelfth Avenue and Commercial Street, Emporia, Kansas. Second-class mail privileges authorized at Emporia, Kansas.


FIELD TRIPS

by John Breukelman

Department of Biology, Kansas State Teachers College

This is directed to those who like field trips, who like to take their students on field trips, who may wish to plan field trips, and who are interested in nature and nature study, even though they may not have thought much about field trips.

WHY GO ON FIELD TRIPS?

Is there really anything to be learned by going on field trips that could not be learned more quickly and easily by conscientious memor­izing in the classroom? Is there any­thing to see on a field trip that could not be seen as well, and some­times even better from carefully selected pictures, slides, and mov­ies? Perhaps not, but those who have taken many groups on field trips, whether groups of children or adults, whether on long or short trips, agree there is excitement and motivation in actually going where the sights, sounds, and smells of nature are. They also agree that this excitement and motivation may be used to stimulate the students to discover things for themselves, that field trips may start lifelong inter­ests in nature, and that they can provide a wealth of activities for constructive use of spare time. Field trips may be so conducted as to inspire respect for living things and for the ways in which they ad­just themselves to their surround­ings. Not the least value of field trips is that they may be used to show the need for better care of the out-of-doors. Those who have been on well conducted field trips are probably less likely to be litterbugs and more likely to show outdoor courtesy. Field trips may prove the basis for appreciation of the need of conservation and for sound under­standing of conservation problems and practices.

WHAT SHOULD BE DONE IN PLANNING THE TRIP?

If possible, the leader and his as­sistants should go over the route ahead of time, while conditions are about the same as those expected to prevail at the time of the proposed trip; thus if the trip is to be taken in the early morning hours, the leader should go over the route early in the morning.

Whenever necessary or appropri­ate the leader gets permission from the landowners, park superintend­ents, or others responsible for the grounds on which the trip is to be taken. If he fails to get such per­mission he may be trespassing. When children are involved, it may be necessary to get the consent of their parents or guardians.

If the trip is of any length, it will be necessary to locate suitable lunch and rest stops. If the trip is to be by automobile, the leader should make sure in advance that adequate and safe places to park will be available.

Before the trip starts, the leader should explain to the group just what the trip is for, what its object­ives are and what is likely to be seen. He should also explain that one can never plan a field trip com­pletely, and that one gets the most benefits from field trips by being alert to anything that may turn up. The leader should explain what is suitable dress and footwear for the occasion, and any precautions to be taken about poison ivy, chiggers, ticks, and other natural hazards that may be encountered. If insect repellent lotions are necessary, this should be explained. If cameras, field glasses, insect nets, or other equipment are to be taken, the use of each item should be explained.

On many occasions it is practical to organize a field trip group into one or more teams. Such a team is suggested in the accompanying cartoon sketch. In this case the team consists of seven members and a leader. If there were twelve in the group, another team could be organized, consisting of only five members-perhaps one camera and one notebook would do for both teams. Or the camera might be omitted and the group of twelve arranged into two teams of six each. Each team member is re­sponsible for a specific task and for certain items of equipment. At times the whole group may be as­signed a common job, such as form­ing a line to march across a pasture and look for ground nesting birds and their nests. But when the com­mon job has ended, each team member resumes his assigned duty. The leader may wish to separate the teams and have each go its own way; in this case an assistant will be needed for each additional team.

If the same group goes on several trips, the team duties may be ro­tated so that each individual has an opportunity to get more varied ex­periences. If the trip is a long one with several good stopping places or breaks, it may be best to rotate duties several times on a single trip. The leaders must be sure that each person understands which du­ties he is to perform during each part of the trip.

In the accompanying sketch showing a field trip team, A is re­sponsible for the insect net, B for the plant digger, and C for the home-built carrier with its miscel­lany of collecting cans and jars. D mayor may not be successful; some insects are easily caught this way and others are not. E will have a photographic record of the trip. F is in charge of the plant collecting can, or vasculum, and G keeps a record of specimens collected and other pertinent data. The trip leader, H, stands ready to give help where needed and to answer ques­tions. He keeps the group together and their attention centered on the business at hand.

sketch mentioned from text above

WHAT KINDS OF FIELD TRIPS ARE SUITABLE?

The following are some examples of field trips that have been con­ducted by myself, my colleagues, or my students. This is by no means a complete list of possibilities, in fact it is only a a small sampling.

1.     Campus Field Trip for General Biology Students

The students were taken, in groups of about 20, over the Emporia State Campus to see some of the aspects of plant and animal life studied in the Gen­eral Biology course. The u'ips were on foot and took about 45 minutes to an hour and 20 minutes.

A shady wooded hillside often yields a wide variety of plant and animal specimens, but this group was examining Hermit's Cave, one of the points of historical interest in Council Grove.
Pheasant nesting site and nest

Pheasant nesting site and nest

Redwing nest and young

Redwing nest and young

2.     Ecology Three-Day Field Trip

Members of the class in ecology, graduate students and advanced under­graduates, were taken by car to such areas as Cheyenne Bottoms, the sand dunes, salt marshes, and selected Flint Hills lo­calities. This trip was taken near the end of the course in Ecology, to illustrate as many ecological situations as possible. Such a trip involves careful planning, hotel or motel reservations or camping facilities, scheduled meal stops and rest stops, and careful attention to the time element.

3.     Conservation Workshop, Soil and Water Conservation Field Trip

The members of the summer conser­vation workshop were taken by bus over a route of about 100 miles, from Emporia to Council Grove and return. This trip was under the direction of the local Soil Conservation personnel, even though it was a routine class trip. Most of the morn­ing was spent observing soil and water conservation practices such as terraces and waterways, watershed control, con­tour fanning, farm ponds, crop rotation, and grass restoration. After a lunch stop and brief program at Council Grove, about two hours were spent under the direction of the fire chief, in a guided tour of the principal points of historical interest in and about Council Grove, after which the group returned to Emporia, reviewing on the return trip many of the conservation practices observed during the morning.

4. Easter Vacation Trip

During Easter vacation a group of biology students were taken by bus to the Port Aransas Wildlife Refuge, the Welder Wildlife Foundation, and the gulf coast near Corpus Christi, Texas. Such an ex­tensive trip requires careful advance planning and detailed scheduling. If much collecting is to be done, it is essen­tial that the equipment be carefully plan­ned, so there will be space available both for the equipment and the materials col­lected.

5. Bird Hikes

These are most effective when started at about daybreak, and when it is possible to cover a variety of habitat types. If bird hikes are part of a class, it is possible to instruct the students carefully in advance concerning the use of field glasses, field bird guides, notebooks or checklists, and the best procedures for getting to see birds at close range. If the hike is an in­formal one, associated with a camp or meeting, such advance preparation may not be possible. In the latter case a ten or fifteen minute briefing period at the beginning of the trip will add greatly to its effectiveness.

6. The Christmas Bird Census

Participants in the census, under the auspices of the National Audubon Soci­ety, make a record of the kinds and num­bers of birds seen during the course of a trip of several hours, covering as many as possible of the available habitats in the area. The census takers are organized into groups, going in different directions from the central location. They travel by car and on foot, keeping track of the amount of time spent in each type of habitat and the approximate distance covered. The census takes place during the week be­tween Christmas and New Years, and the results from all over the United States are compiled by the National Audubon Society.

7. "Frogging" Trips

These trips occur during the season when frogs are calling (March, April, or May, depending on the species and the locality) during the evening hours. For most specles such trips are most effective during the first half of the night. Flashlights or headlights are necessary; if col­lecting ii to be done, jars or other con­tainers should be carried. Froggers should wear boots or be so dressed that they will not mind wading. (It should be remem­bered that bullfrogs are protected by state law and may be taken only in ac­cordance with state fish and game laws. Copies of these laws may be obtained from the Forestry, Fish and Game Com­mission, Pratt, Kansas.)

8.     Fireflies

During the war, while I was teaching in an Air Forces pre-flight unit, it de­veloped that a number of the boys had never seen fireflies. So a series of 30­minute trips was arranged, to a bend in a river where fireflies were specially nu­merous. The insects were caught, the flashing lights examined under a lens, the flashing intervals were timed, and some specimens were taken for permanent mounts or to be sent home.

9.     Photography

An entire field trip can be organized around the idea of a pictorial record. If the group is small, each person can carry a camera. These may be of different sizes, and loaded with different film. Both black-and-white prints and colored trans­parencies are valuable in teaching and study. One of my students, as a result of several picture taking trips, has a large collection of slides illustrating all the common habitats in the area surrounding his school.

If the field group is large, two or three of the members may be designated as the official photographers.

10.     Short Trips Within Class Periods

At various times my students or I have taken classes out on field trips as short as ten minutes, to see such things as:

a)     erosion effects resulting from a three-inch rain on a newly graded highway slope;

b)     spatter erosion leaving soil on the school foundation where unpro­tected soil was next to the foundation, and the clean foundation where grass was next to the found­ation;

c)     magnolias in blossom in a nearby yard;

d ) fungi and lichens growing on a tree trunk in the school yard;

e) an exceptionally heavy algae "bloom" in the campus lake;

f) buffalo grass in blossom;

g) fish-stocking activities.

Field trip photography can be quite exact­ing; the field photographer's stUdio is where he finds it.

Field trip photography can be quite exact­ing; the field photographer's studio is where he finds it.

Examining types of grasses along a Lyon County roadside; a conservation group travelling in a caravan.

Examining types of grasses along a Lyon County roadside; a conservation group travelling in a caravan.

Field identification, in the field

Field identification, in the field

Field trips are fun for both children and adults.

Field trips are fun for both children and adults.

Stream collecting

Stream collecting

Sand dune, Stafford County

Sand dune, Stafford County

You need not go far; this picture, taken through a livingroom window during a light snowfall, shows house sparrows, juncos, and robins in a winter habitat.

You need not go far; this picture, taken through a livingroom window during a light snowfall, shows house sparrows, juncos, and robins in a winter habitat.

The above are only a few ex­amples; we have gone out to help a farmer seine his pasture pond, to make counts of the number of robins and robin nests on the campus, to see the feeding activities in a col­ony of great blue herons, to bring in samples of frozen earth with their dormant plant and animal forms, and to see wind erosion in action-topsoil from an adjacent corn field drifting across the road.

The above illustrations bring out several points-that a field trip is usually arranged (1) to take ad­vantage of some seasonal feature, (2) to observe some specific kinds of plants or animals, (3) to observe types of plant or animal habitats, or (4) to illustrate in the field that which has already been studied in the classroom or laboratory. It is generally agreed among those who have used field trips most effective­ly that anyone trip should have a major objective or a primary feature of interest. This does not mean that the objective is always attained, or that the primary feature of interest will be available at the precise time of the trip. It is therefore necessary for the director to be alert to other possibilities, and even to have some planned alternates in case the trip does not yield exactly what was hoped.

The shoreline of a lake or fenced farm pond (if not fenced, a farm pond shoreline may be so stirred up by cattle walking in and out that it is nearly worthless as a nature study area ) offers many opportunities for short or extensive field trips. A suc­cession of plants-algae and pond­weeds in the water; cattails, water lilies, reeds, sedges, arrowheads, smartweeds growing with their roots under water and their leaves floating or their stems out of wat­er-may be found, each occupying its own habitat and associated with worms, insects, spiders, fishes, birds, and other animals.

Mosses, fungi, ferns, and other moisture adapted plants live near the water. These also have their as­sociated plants. Water samples may be poured through a fine net or screen to obtain some of the smaller forms. Mud or sand samples from the bottom may prove rich in small organisms.

In the woods, a good collecting spot is a rotting log. Underneath may live worms, insects, millipedes, snails, salamanders, lizards, and small mammals. In and on the log may be found a great variety of in­sects mostly beetles and their lar­vae, termites, ants, and roaches. Various species of molds and fungi are usually present, especially in late spring and early summer. If the log is carefully pulled apart differ­ent kinds of small animals and their habitats may be found; some of these are tiny, and a hand lens Or reading glass will be useful. If some of the finer material is put in a jar and examined under a microscope, many protozoa and other microorg­anisms may be seen.


WHAT CAN BE DONE TO MAKE A FIELD TRIP EFFECTIVE?

  1. Start promptly at the time scheduled.

  2. Stop whenever there is something im­portant to be seen, whether or not this was on the schedule (within the limits of the available time).

  3. Be sure that everyone sees and hears. The leader may carry a pointer, or in case of evening trips, a focusing flash· light. Sometimes he can point to the object of attention by reflecting a beam of light from a small mirror. Sometimes the assistant can point out the object of attention while the leader is discussing it. In the case of large groups, a portable loudspeaker can be highly beneficial.

  4. Encourage participation of the stu­dents in the activities on the trip. Ask them to be on the lookout for unusual types of plants or plant growth, signs of the presence of animals, effects of cultivation, and other changes brought about by living things, or by natural forces, such as wind and running water. Younger children may play de­tective by looking for nests, galls, bur­rows, tracks, droppings, pellets, tooth marks, claw marks, hoof prints, par­tially eaten leaves, and various other evidences that animals are or have been present.

  5. Name plants and animals by indirec­tion. Do not say "Children, there is a barnswallow." Rather, ask the chil­dren to note what kind of wings the bird has, the shape of its tail, how it flies, the colors on various parts of its body, and other questions which will lead the children themselves to arrive at the conclusion that the bird is a barnswallow.

  6. Avoid the use of "always" and "nev­er." When the leader has been calling attention to a kingbird darting from its perch, catching an insect, and re­turning to its perch, has explained its insect eating habits and has ad­ded, "The kingbird never feeds on the ground," and when at that mom­ent the kingbird flies down to the middle of the road, picks up a dead grasshopper and returns to its perch, much of the effect of that trip is probably lost. It would have been better to say that kingbirds "usually feed on the wing" or that they "seldom feed on the ground." Variability is the one invariable thing about life, and field trips offer excellent opportunities for observing this varia­bility.

  7. Keep the group together as much as possible; it is sometimes necessary to go single file and to stay on a narrow trail in order to avoid damage to the plants under observation. But even then the line should be kept as short as possible. Sometimes it is possible to reverse the line so that those who were bringing up the rear are now near the leader, and vice versa. Sometimes an assistant will be avail­able to bring up the rear and some­times those near the end of the line Stream collecting may be asked to watch for things which those at the beginning of the line may have missed.

  8. Arrange for stops, as frequently as the size of the group pelmits. Some time is lost in getting started and get­ting the group together for the next stop. If the group is large this lost time may become too big a fraction of the total available time. In any case there should be some stops dur­ing which conversation may be car­ried on easily, new problems posed, questions answered, and advance notice given concerning the things to be seen next.

  9. Watch the time. Unless the field trip starts and stops on time it will lose some of its effectiveness.

  10. On a long trip extending over more than one day, arrange a general meeting of the group during the eve­ning of each day spent in the field. Unless this is done much of the ef­fectiveness of the long trip will be lost. Such a meeting will be the time to pass around the specimens picked up by various individuals, and if there are Polaroid cameras in the group, to pass around pictures that have been taken. This is the time to look up some of the answers to ques­tions which could not readily be answered in the field. It goes without saying that on any trip lasting more than a day, some kind of field library should be carried. If the field trip group is an organized class this may be the time for a short test, which mayor may not be counted for grad­ing purposes. This will be the time to compile lists of specimens taken or birds seen during the day, and make necessary corrections and additions to the day's notes.

  11. If concluding remarks are necessary or appropriate, they should be made somewhat before the end of the trip. Any such summation should be short and should merely point out high­lights. Once the group has come to an end and the participants are back at the starting point, they are not in any mood for concluding remarks.

WHAT SHOULD BE DONE AFTER A FIELD TRIP?

This depends much upon the type of trip involved; if it is a one­-shot affair such as a trip associated with a science convention it is like­ly that nothing will or can be done. H the trip is a part of a class activ­ity, it is often quite appropriate to devote parts of several of the fol­lowing meetings of the class to vari­ous aspects of the trip. Following are some suggestions, any or all of which may apply to anyone speci­fic trip.

 

  1. Review the highlights of the trip, pointing out the aspects which were highly important to some phase of the subject and others which may have been equally interesting but were of less importance.

  2. Show pictures taken on the trip, or on a previous similar trip. These may be snapshots, color transparencies, Polaroid pictures, or drawings, as well as movies.

  3. Identify specimens collected. Do not collect just for the sake of collecting, but only when collecting is feasible and appropriate. Collecting should ordinarily not be haphazard, but have some clear relationship to the aims of the field trip. In any case, any speci­men collected should be identified as far as possible. In some instances identification to orders or families is as far as one can go; in other cases com­plete genus and species identification is possible.

  4. Make sure the students understand the larger picture of which the par­ticular field trip was a part. Only rarely is a field trip an end in itself; almost always it is a part of some more comprehensive activity.

  5. Get the reactions of the field group to the trip. What features do they think were of most value to them? What, if any, did they consider of little value? What would they change if they were taking the same trip again?

WHAT CAN A STUDENT DO TO GET THE MOST BENEFIT FROM A FIELD TRIP?

  1. Study beforehand as many aspects of the trip and its significance as possible.

  2. Take lots of notes and go over them immediately after the trip, making any desirable additions and corrections. In many cases snapshots or sketches may help to make the notes more meaning­ful.

  3. Ask lots of questions, and if you don't get them all answered, keep asking the questions anyway.

  4. Keep your attention focused on the trip leader, and stay as close to him as the general organization of the group and courteous behavior permits.

  5. Keep a scrapbook covering not only the field trip but related activities as well.

  6. If specimens were collected, go over them from time to time, noting par­ticularly the relationship between the specimens and the aims of the field trip.

HOW CAN A FIELD TRIP LEADER IMPROVE HIMSELF

 

  1. Keep records, noting particularly the things that prove successful and the things that prove unsuccessful.

  2. Observe the techniques of other field trip leaders, particularly those who are of recognized ability.

  3. Take advantage of guided tours when­ever you can. When you are in a Na­tional Park, try to visit with the ranger naturalists.

  4. Attend a summer camp or nature camp. Field trips are usually a major part of educational camps.

  5. Build up a library of books, bulletins, clippings and other publications on field trips.

  6. Explore as fully as you can the field possibilities in the community in which you teach or in which you ex­pect to lead field groups.

  7. Get suggestions from field groups you conduct asking for constructive criti­cism of the trip. These can be obtain­ed by having the field trip participants fill out an evaluation form, or in an in­form<ll discussion meeting. In either case, the evaluation should be made as soon as possible after the completion of the trip.

 

A field group examining a map, preparing for a tour of the Ross Natural History Reservation

A field group examining a map, preparing for a tour of the Ross Natural History Reservation

MAPS

Maps may be useful or even ne­cessary, both in planning a field trip and on the trip. Many of these can be obtained free, as for example the gasoline company maps given to customers at service stations. Simple maps can be drawn, before­hand or even while a field trip is in progress.

The official highway map of the State Highway Commission of Kan­sas shows the state lakes and parks, Federal reservoirs, and roadside parks. Most other states publish of­ficial maps showing points of spe­cial interest. In Kansas some of the roadside parks are little more than picnic tables, but others are fair­sized areas with grasses, trees, and shrubbery, and with ample oppor­tunities for collecting, surveying, photography, and nature study ac­tivities of many kinds.

For various types of field trips and outdoor study within the state, a set of Kansas county maps can be a special convenience. The State Highway Commission of Kansas has available maps of all the 105 counties. These maps come in two sizes, with different scales. The large maps (which are too large for convenient carrying) are on a scale of one half inch to the mile. The small maps, which can be punched and carried conveniently in an 8 1/2 x 11 inch folder or notebook, have a scale of one fourth inch to the mile. The accompanying figures show the actual sizes of portions of the maps. The large-scale maps show more details, and more can be writ­ten on them. The smaller ones are easily carried in a notebook but· still large enough for many nota­tions. Notations of all sorts can be made directly on the maps. Field trip routes can be marked, with fa­'.'orable collecting places indicated. Good places for group or class ob­servation can be marked.

The maps show the range, town­ship and section numbers, as well as many kinds of natural and artificial landmarks. Examples are high­ways, railroads, cities and towns, oil wells and tanks, stockyards, ra­dio stations, air fields, and ceme­teries, as well as rivers and their main tributaries, intermittent stre­ams, reservoirs, dams, lakes and ponds.

The small maps cost 10 cents each, or $10.00 for the entire set of 105 maps; the large ones 25 cents each, or $26.25 for the entire set. Address the State Highway Commission of Kansas, State Office Building, To­peka, Kansas.

The Forestry, Fish, and Game Commission, Pratt, Kansas, supplies free a small map showing all the state parks, lakes and areas under their jurisdiction. This map and list are printed on an 8 1/2 x 11 sheet which fits conveniently into a note­book.

The upper map shows more details and provides more space for writing, but covers only
one fourth as many square miles as the lower map of the same size. On the upper scale (1/2 inch per mile) the map of Lyon County measures 11 x 19 1/2 inches; on the lower scale
(1/4 inch per mile) only 5 1/2 x 9 3/4 inches. The original of the larger map has the streams
printed in blue ink, which does not show up on the black-and-white engraving.

A SUGGESTED LIST OF FIELD EQUIPMENT

The following list is by no means complete, but will call attention to some of the useful ' items that are ofter: overlooked. It also illustrates the wide variety of things one may need or use on a field trip. This comes about because there are many sorts of field trips; the field trip leader must plan carefully for each trip. He should try to avoid carrying unnecessary things, but he must !lot get caught out in the field with some essential items missing. Knowing what to take along re­quires experience and careful plan­ning. It also helps a lot to have at hand the records of previous trips.

BAGS, of muslin or other cloth, for carry­ing lizards, snakes, turtles; should be made with drawstring or tape that in­sures tight closing.

BOOTS or wading shoes; one should not wade barefoot in ponds or roadside ditches because of danger of stepping on pieces of sharp metal or broken glass.

CAMERA for still or motion pictures, in black-and-white or color

COLLECTING bottles, cans, jars of vari­ous sizes

DIP NET or tow net for collecting water life (Insect nets should not be used for this purpose.)

FIELD GLASSES (binoculars) for ob­serving distant objects, particularly for bird watching

GLOVES

INSECT NET, killing jars, small cages or jars with perforated lids

"LlBRARY"-a convenient carrier for the books, notebooks, maps, and reference material to be carried along

MAGNIFYING GLASS, reading glass, hand lens (On some types of trips it may be desirable to take along a com· pound microscope.)

NOTEBOOK for field data

PLANT collecting can (vasculum), dig­ger, press

SEINE (A "minnow seine" may be used legally; a permit is necessary for larger sizes and special types of seines.)

TAPE MEASURE or rule

REFERENCES

Benton, A. H. and Werner, W. E. Jr., 1958. PrinCiples of Field Biology and Ecology, McGraw-Hlll, New York. $6.50
Includes information on field problems, methods, and equipment, also many up­-to-date references.

Comstock, Anna B., Handbook of Nature Study, Comstock Publishing Co., Ithaca, N.Y. (Various editions and prices.)
Almost a nature encyclopedia, with in­troductory chapter on the teaching of nature study.

Hillcourt, William, 1950. Field Book of Na­ture Activities, G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York. $3.95
A comprehensive list of activities, many of which are in the field, also a project index. One of the Nature Field Books series listed below.

Palmer, E. Laurence, 1949. Field Book of Natural History, MCGraw-Hill, New York. $7.50
A guide, with drawings and detailed de­scriptions to the sky, minerals, plants, and animals.

Partridge, J. A., 1955. Natural Science through the Seasons, Macmillan, New York. $3.80
Both information and activities, cover­ing the whole field of nature study by seasons.

Weaver, R. L. (Editor), 1955. Handbook for Teaching of Conservation and Resource Use, Interstate Publishers, Danville, Il­linois. $4.00
Prepared by National Association of Bi­ology Teachers; contains many descrip­tions of field projects described by the teachers who planned and directed them.

Putnam's Nature Field Books, G. P. Put­nam's Sons, New York, most of them at $3.95 each, well illustrated with photo­graphs and drawings. Some of the most useful:

  • Anthony, Field Book of North American Mammals
  • Armstrong, Feld Book of Western Wild Flowers
  • Asch, The Story of Plants
  • Durand, Field Book of Common Ferns
  • Hausman, Field Book of Eastern Birds
  • Hausman, Beginners Guide to Fresh-Water Life
  • Hausman, Beginners Guide to Attracting Birds
  • Loomis, Field Book of Common Rocks and Minerals
  • Lutz, Field Book of Insects
  • Mathews, Field Book of Wild Birds and Their Music
  • Mathews, Field Book of American Wild Flowers
  • Mathews, Field Book of American Trees and Shrubs
  • Morgan, Field Book of Animals in Winter
  • Morgan, Field Book of Ponds and Streams
  • Schmidt and Davis, Field Book of Snakes
  • Thomas, Field Book of Common Mush­rooms

Peterson Field Guide Series, published by Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, most of them at $3.95. Some of the most useful are:

 

  • Peterson, A Field Guide to the Birds
  • Peterson, A Field Guide to Western Birds
  • Klots, A Field Guide to the Butterflies
  • Burt and Grossenheider, A Field Guide to the Mammals
  • Pough, A Field Guide to Rocks and Min­erals
  • Murie, A Field Guide to Animal Tracks
  • Petrides, A Field Guide to Trees and Shrubs
  • Conant, A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians

The Pictured-Key Nature Series, also commonly designated as the "How to Know" series, published by William C. Brown Co., Dubuque, Iowa; available in both spiral binding and standard cloth binding; cost varies, most of them about $3.00. Some of the most useful:

 

  • Jaques, How to Know the Insects
  • Jaques, How to nKow the Trees
  • Jaques, Living Things-How to Know Them
  • Jaques, Plant Families-How to Know Them
  • Jaques, How to Know the Bettles
  • Cuthbert, How to Know the Spring Flowers
  • Cuthbert, How to Know the Fall Flowers
  • Chu, How to Know the Immature Insects
  • Booth, How to Know the Mammals
  • Kaston, How to Know the Spiders
  • Pohl, How to Know the Grasses
  • Eddy, How to Know the Freshwater Fishes 

The Golden Nature Guide Series, pub­lished by Simon and Schuster, New York, in paper binding at $1.00 each, most of them also available in cloth at $2.50. Some of the most useful for field trips:

  • Zim and Gabrielson, Birds 
  • Zim and Shoemaker, Fishes 
  • Zim and Martin, Flowers 
  • Zim and Cottam, Insects 
  • Zim and Hoffmeister, Mammals 
  • Zim and Smith, Reptiles and Amphibians
  • Zim and Shaffer, Rocks and Minerals
  • Zim and Martin, Trees
  • Burnett, Fisher, and Zim, Zoology

Paperbacks-inexpensive books, useful to field biology, most of them 35¢ or 50¢. A few of the most useful are the following'; new ones appear at irregular intervals.

  • Cruickshank, Pocket Guide to The Birds, Cardinal, 50¢
  • Pearl, How to now the Minerals and Rocks, Signet, 50¢
  • Peterson, How to Know the Birds, Sig­net, 50¢
  • Sanderson. How to Know the American Mammals, Signet, 50¢
  • Stefferud, How to Know the Wild Flowers, Mentor, 35¢

Free publications helpful in field work:

Pasture and Range Plants, Phillips Pe­troleum Co., Bartlesville, Oklahoma.

What Have I Caught? Kansas Forestry, Fish, and Game Commission, Pratt, Kan­sas.

Glimpses of Kansas Wildlife, Kansas Forestry, Fish , and Game Commission. Pratt, Kansas.

Scenic Kansas should be overlooked ; this field trip, primarily for fossil hunting, was planned to include a stop at Castle Rock, in eastern Gove County.

Scenic Kansas should be overlooked ; this field trip, primarily for fossil hunting, was planned to include a stop at Castle Rock, in eastern Gove County.

AUDUBON SCREEN TOUR SERIES

The Biology Department of the Kansas State Teachers College of Emporia is sponsoring its third Audubon Screen Tour Series during the school year, 1959-1960. This series consists of five all-color motion pictures of wildlife, scenics, plant science, and conservation personally narrated by leading naturalists. These pictures are presented in Albert Taylor Hall at 7:30 p.m. on the dates listed below. Plan to attend with some of your students. Family season tickets, adult single season tickets, and single admission tickets are available. For addi­tional information write to Dr. David Parmelee, Biology Department, KSTC, Emporia.

One Audubon Screen Tour, dealing with the natural his­tory 0 Puerto Rico, was presented, September 29. The re­maining four are as follows:

Albert Wool, Ranch and Range, Tuesday, November 3

Alexander Sprunt, Jr., Coastal Carolina, Wednesday, De­cember 2

Cleveland P. Grant, Land of Early Autumn, Tuesday, Jan­uary 26

William Ferguson, High Horizons, Friday, February 5

IT IS NOT TOO EARLY to plan to attend the 1960 Workshop in Conservation, which will be a part of the 1960 Summer Session of the Kansas State Teachers College of Emporia, during June and July.

As in the past several years, the 'Workshop will cover water, soil, grassland, and wildlife conserva­tion, with emphasis throughout on conservation teaching. Such topics as geography and climate of Kansas, water resources, soil erosion problems and control, grass as a resource, bii-d banding, wild­flowers, conservation clubs, and conservation teaching in various gr8.des will be discussed. There will be lectures, demonstrations, discussion groups, films, slides, field trips, projects, and individual and group reports. You may enroll for undergraduate or graduate credit.

Exact dates, fees, and other details will appear in later issues of The Kansas School Naturalist; for other information about the Workshop write Rob­ert F. Clarke, Department of Biology, KSTC, Em­poria, Kansas.