Volume 3, Number 3 - February 1957
Life in a Pond
by Conservation Workshop Members
The Kansas State Teachers College of Emporia
Prepared and Issued by
The Department of Biology, with the cooperation of the Divisions of Education and Social Science
Editor: John Breukelman, Head, Department of Biology
Editorial Committee: Ina M. Borman, Robert F. Clarke, Helen M. Douglass, Gilbert A. Leisman, Dixon Smith
The Kansas School Naturalist is sent upon request, free of charge, to any citizen of Kansas.
The Kansas School Naturalist is published in October, December, February and April of each year by The Kansas State Teachers College, Emporia, Kansas. Second-class mail privileges authorized at Emporia, Kansas.
Online format by: Terri Weast
ABOUT THE AUTHORS
THIS ISSUE OF The Kansas School Naturalist was prepared by the production section of the 1956 Workshop in Conservation. The Workshop, supported by a grant-in-aid from the Kansas Association for Wildlife and the National Wildlife Federation, was a part of the 1956 summer session of the Kansas State Teachers College of Emporia. The committee in charge consisted of: H. W. Davies, Chapman High School; Paul A. Jantzen, Larned High School; Harland Pankratz, Buhler High School; Carl W. Prophet, Kansas State Teachers College of Emporia; and Frank Darrell Timken, Lansing Rural High School. The drawings are by Evan Lindquist, student at Kansas State Teachers College of Emporia, whose work has appeared in several previous issues of The Kansas School Naturalist.
Professional biologists spend considerable amounts of time and effort in study of the basic relationships that exist between living things and their environment. However, the layman interested in similar study may perform an abbreviated research project that also will yield realization of the interrelations of organisms upon one another and upon their nonliving habitat. It has been discovered that apparent and obvious relationships exist within an enclosed body of water-a pond or lake. In Kansas there are over 200 private and public lakes and about 75,000 farm ponds which would serve as aquatic laboratories suitable for study, often within walking distance of the home or science classroom. Armed with a basic understanding of the fundamental characteristics of a pond, a careful observer may, with a minimum of collecting apparatus, discover a wealth of knowledge of the complex aspects of life that takes place beneath the quiet surface of the familiar farm pond or city impoundment.
A pond or lake is often referred to as an ecosystem. An ecosystem is a natural unit which includes living and non-living interacting parts, and in which the materials exchanged between the components follow a regular pattern; our world is made up of many ecosystems. These components will be briefly discussed in the next few pages.
Extreme climatic and topographic variations in Kansas make it difficult to assign any certain physical characteristics as representing the typical Kansas pond. Each pond is a speCial case since no two are identical in size, form, watershed, or basin contours. Neither are they ever supplied with exactly the same water, for in different regions the chemical and physical composition of the surrounding land is highly variable. Some generalizations, however, will hold true for most ponds in Kansas.
The Kansas pond is artifiCially constructed, an earthen dam usually being erected in a minor, intermittent watercourse or the lower side of a depression in the earth. The relatively shallow, enclosed body of water which results depends upon surface drainage or small in flowing rivulets to compensate for water loss through evaporation, seepage, or outflow. Most Kansas ponds are "sky ponds"ponds that depend entirely upon surface drainage-and undergo extreme fluctuations of depth and surface area in times of drought or heavy rainfall. During 1956, hundreds of Kansas ponds were completely dry. Pond waters undergo extreme changes in temperature at different seasons, becoming very warm in summer and freezing almost solid in severe winters.
Another characteristic of the Kansas pond is the relatively high turbidity-amount of suspended matter in the water. Even with good cover crops, rain water flowing over the surface picks up soil and carries it to the pond. Additional causes of turbidity in farm ponds are the trampling of livestock along the pond margins, wave action against bare shores, and the activity of bottom-feeding fish such as carp. Ponds below cultivated farm lands or eroded pastures often become choked with silt which smothers the food organisms and entirely fills the basin. Silt too may reduce the productivity of the pond by interfering with light penetration and thereby inhibiting photosynthesis by aquatic plants.
Unlike the atmosphere with its relatively constant concentration of gases, the amount of dissolved gases in pond water is variable. Temperature is a major factor in this regard, since cold water will hold much more dissolved gas than warm water will. Aquatic organisms often are subjected to a critical shortage of necessary oxygen, since the amount of this gas dissolved in water is at best relatively small. The concentration varies with time of day, season, weather conditions, and depth-all factors being related basically to temperature and solubility. Oxygen is supplied to the pond by the photosynthetic activity of green plants and surface absorption from the atmosphere. Vital life processes of pond organisms, both plant and animal, and the decay of organic material deplete the oxygen supply and in turn increase the amount of carbon dioxide in solution. If the amount of oxygen produced by the green plants or surface absorption of oxygen becomes less than the oxygen requirements of the organisms within the water, these organisms are soon in a precarious situation.
Since rain water is relatively free of minerals, the amount of mineral nutrients in a pond depends upon the fertility of the watershed soil. Productivity of any pond is thus related to the fertility of the earth around its shores, the pond tending to be deficient in those elements and compounds lacking in the surrounding drainage area. Aquatic organisms, like their land counterparts, need adequate amounts of certain minerals to carryon life processes. Without these minerals the pond becomes a watery desert.
Most bodies of water abound with plants and animals which, for the most part, are relatively unknown to the layman. These aquatic and semi-aquatic organisms are highly specialized and possess certain distinct characteristics. For aquatic animals, the teardrop-shaped body is one of the most efficient forms for swimming because it offers the least resistance to the water. Although some of the aquatic animals found in ponds have lungs, many use gills for breathing. Other characteristics which are evident are specialized locomotor appendages such as fins or fin-like structures, flattened tails, and webbed digits. Aquatic plants also have certain characteristics not common to land forms, such as poorly developed root systems and air sacs for buoyancy and for storage of oxygen and carbon dioxide. A careful study of pond organisms will reveal other interesting characteristics that are common primarily to aquatic forms.
When visiting a pond, does one und plants and animals in certain places? Just as there is an evident distribution of plants and animals according to soil conditions, climate, or food supply in a land environment, so is there in water. A still pond has many organisms different from those found in a rapid stream. In an aquatic environment, we call this distribution of organisms zonation. The diagram on page 6 shows how a pond can be divided into zones, and illustrates some of the plants and animals that are commonly found in them. It should be remembered that although some organisms are commonly found in a particular zone, these same forms may appear throughout the entire pond.
Ponds may have three distinct regions. The' first includes all parts of the pond in which sufficient sunlight will penetrate to permit the growth of rooted plants on the bottom. This is called the littoral or shallow water region, and in some instances, this region may cover the entire area of the pond. Another region is called the bottom or profundal region, and consists of water below the depth of light penetration. Most ponds will not have this region unless they are quite deep or very muddy. The third region that may be present is called the limnetic region. This is the area of open and deep water which is always bordered by the littoral.
In an ideal pond, it would be possible to distinguish three separate zones in the littoral region, each zone being determined by the type of plants found there. Looking from the shore towards the open water, one would notice tall, erect plants such as cattails, bulrushes, and arrowheads growing in the shallow water; this is the zone of emergent plants. The next zone would be made up of plants such as the water lily and is called the zone of floating plants. Growing in water too deep to permit any part of the plant to emerge are plants such as Najas. Plants such as this make up the zone of submergent plants. It is usually difficult, in most ponds, to separate clearly these three zones, since they tend to merge. Each zone, however, will serve as the home of certain animals and each serves a definite role in the life of a pond.
Just as an organism has a particular home, or habitat, it also has a certain job to perform in the community. All organisms may be classified into one of three categories. Organisms containing chlorophyll and therefore manufacturing their own food by photosynthesis are known as producers. Organisms that feed directly upon the producers and upon organisms are known as consumers. These organisms are unable to manufacture their own food. Bacteria and fungi that react upon dead matter and free useful compounds, elements, and minerals so that the producers may utilize them once again are called reducers. The diagram on the following page shows how these categories are dependent upon each other, the removal of any category being detrimental to the others. The feeding of consumers upon producers, and of consumers upon other consumers, constitutes a food chain. Thus, if Daphnia feed upon algae, and minnows feed upon Daphnia, and snapping turtles in turn eat minnows, as might occur in the pond shown above, the food chain would be: algae-Daphnia-turtles. The basis or beginning of every food chain is the food-manufacturing process, photosynthesis, which occurs only in plants that have chlorophyll. Thus the algae and other green aquatic plants in a pond correspond to the grasses, legumes, and other green plants in a pasture or meadow.
The diagram above applies equally to water and land organisms. The relationships between producers, consumers, and reducers are the same in all habitats.
Any effective field trip requires certain basic equipment. In general, such equipment includes field guides for identification
of plants and animals; notebooks and pencils for recording field observations; hand lenses; containers such as jars, cans, and stout cotton bags (for frogs and snakes); insect nets; a garden trowel and plant presses; and preservative (one part formalin to nine parts water is often used).
Other necessary equipment may be constructed with inexpensive materials and a bit of imagination. A tow net, for collecting most of the organisms described in this issue, may be made of bolting silk or strong bobinet fastened to tough cotton cloth covering an embroidery hoop or heavy wire ring. Three cords fastened equidistant around the ring with the remaining ends tied to a long rope make it possible to pull the net through the water. The net may then be turned inside out and the collected material rinsed into a white enameled pan which provides a good background for observing the collected organisms. If a dip net is desired, the ends of the wire ring can be secured to a wooden handle.
A seine, which is often desirable, can be constructed by fastening two handles of lightweight wood to a piece of plastic window screen. The addition of weights and floats completes a durable seine. A perforated coffee can attached to a pole can be used to collect bottom organisms, and a weighted ring of barbed wire attached to a rope is useful for collecting submerged plants.
It is both fascinating and instructive to observe living things in their day-today activities, and to follow their development from egg to adult. Many pond organisms can be kept in any wide-mouthed bottle or regular aquarium containing a layer of sand and some aquatic plants, and filled with pond water. While Elodea and Vallisneria are best suited for use in aquaria, other plants such as Spirogyra and Chara may also be used. Duckweeds, if controlled, can be used as food for some of the aquarium animals.
One stimulating use of collected organisms is the study of life cycles. For instance, leopard frogs mate early in spring, and, with a little effort, males and females can he captured before they spawn durll1g March, April, or May. They may be kept in an aquarium containing moist sand and a supply of living insects (cockroaches, flies, etc.). A pan of fresh pond water should be provided for the laying of eggs. If one is unable to capture adults, eggs may be found attached to pond weeds and sticks and removed to the classroom aquarium. Fertile eggs will turn dark and hatch in five to twenty days. During this time, eggs at various stages of development may be studied under the microscope. A few days after hatching, the swimming tadpole will begin to feed on algae and other aquatic plants. Gradually the gill breathing tadpole undergoes body changes (metamorphosis) until finally the air-breathing adult stage is reached and the young frog emerges from the water.
Female crayfish with eggs attached to their swimmerets may be found during late fall or early spring. By placing them in a classroom aquarium, it is possible to watch the development of the eggs and young. It is necessary that some stones be placed in the aquarium so that the crayfish may hide. Crayfish will feed on algae and other aquatic organisms and care must be taken not to pollute the aquarium by overfeeding.
Aquatic insects make interesting aquarium members. However, a screen or cloth should be placed over the aquarium to prevent their escape. Backswimmers require fresh pond water weekly, and eat wrigglers and chopped earthworms or insects. Water boatmen are scavengers and need only bottom mud or debris. The water strider will feed on killed or wounded insects on the water's surface, and whirligig beetles will feed on raw beef placed on a floating toothpick, or on insects and fish food. Dragonfly and damselfly nymphs will eat wrigglers, other small insects, and Daphnia.
One jar stocked with Daphnia or Cyclops can supply the food for several of the larger animals of an aquarium. Daphnia culture may be successful if one ounce of dried sheep manure or bone meal per gallon of water is allowed to stand for two or three days before adding the Daphnia. Daphnia thrive on the bacteria supported by added pieces of lettuce, algal masses, or other aquatic plants that are allowed to decay. Cultures should be placed in subdued light where the room temperature is fairly constant. Cyclops do well in an aquarium supplied with sand, pond-bottom debris, growing plants, and water. Fairy shrimp feed on minute, green water plants but are difficult to maintain for more than a few weeks.
Hydra may be found attached to submerged water plants which may be placed in clean pond or aquarium water. They will eventually attach themselves to living plants and can be fed Daphnia.
Paramecia are cultured in a shallow glass container placed in indirect light. The culture media, prepared five days before inoculation, should be composed of thirty cubic centimeters of distilled water, two kernels of wheat or rice, and seven eight-inch pieces of hay, and should be boiled for five minutes. This culture medium is useful also for rearing the bacteria and protozoans which serve as food for Amebae. Amebae may be found on decaying water plants. The plants may be placed into a dish with a little water. In two weeks bottom sediment containing numerous amebae may be pipetted into the grain-timothy infusion which has been prepared at the time of collection. Avoid placing in direct sunlight.
Euglena collected from a stagnant pool can be cultured in a tall jar placed in direct sunlight. Eight wheat kernels added per pint of distilled water one week before inoculation will be a sufficient supply of food for four weeks.
Snails feed on fish food, tender aquarium plants, lettuce, or spinach leaves and are useful in keeping algae off the sides of the aquarium.
Leeches may be pulled from water plants, sunken leaves, stones, or turtles. They thrive in jars containing an oxygenating plant or in a balanced aquarium placed in diffused light. Once every few weeks feed ground meat, beef-liver, earthworms, or snail meat. If the aquarium has a well-varied animal population, the leeches will not need special feeding care.
Fish food varies with species. Gambusia, best collected in summer or early fall, thrive on ground oatmeal, insects, wrigglers, Daphnia, or commercial fish food. Minnows eat earthworms, insects, and bits of fresh meat. Fish should be kept in an aquarium with plenty of plants. Native fish should ordinarily be fed daily an amount they consume within five minutes.
Additional information on the care of aquatic organisms can be obtained from references listed on page 15.
Obviously the scope of this pamphlet does not allow description of all plants that may be found in or near Kansas ponds. Certain plants, however, may be considered representative. Among these are arrowhead, cattail, and smartweed, which have been previously described in The Kansas School Naturalist (Vol. 2, No. 1) . The nine plants selected for inclusion here were chosen because of their widespread distribution in the state and their relative ease of identification.
Hydrodictyon (Water net)
This green alga is found in still, permanent ponds. The plants form fine green nets which can be recognized by the naked eye. If the colony is not disturbed, the nets may attain lengths up to one foot. When nets attain this size, new nets are formed by the breaking up of the old. Each net contains about one hundred cells.
Ponds with high lime content often contain Chara, a coarse, ill-smelling, lime-coated alga which grows at depths varying from a few inches to thirty or more feet. It has jointed, lined stems with whorls of needle-like branches at the nodes. "Fruits" are borne in the axils of shorter branches. This plant forms great masses of vegetation and ranks high as
duck food. Its presence in water tends to limit development of mosquito larvae.
One of the most common fresh-water green algae, these plants form bright green, unbranched strings (filaments) which feel characteristically slimy or slippery. With the aid of a microscope, one may see one or more coiled, spring-shaped, green bodies (chloroplasts) in each cell of a filament. Spirogyra often appears as floating or attached masses which make up a greenish scum, sometimes called "frog spit," upon the pond surface. Water surface area, volume of water, temperature, and light affect rate of reproduction. This alga is eaten in considerable quantity by ducks; however, it is possible that animal life residing in the plant mass is as much a food inducement as the alga itself.
These perennial herbs with creeping underground stems do not develop extensive beds as do many aquatic plants but tend to produce localized colonies. They are stout, shallow-water plants which may attain a height up to five feet. Leaves are long, ribbon-like, stiff, nearly flat, and strongly ascending. Fruiting stems bear flowers in spherical, erect heads which at maturity become burr-like. These plants serve to anchor soil on wave-beaten flats and are food for many birds, mammals, and insects. They range throughout the eastern five-sixths of the state.
Kansas does not have these plants in abundance, but they are an important group of seed-bearing aquatics. They grow in the deeper ponds at depths depending upon the clearness of the water. The leaves are submerged or floating, attached to creeping underground stems. Flowers of most pondweeds are borne in slender spikes that extend above the surface for wind pollination. When the fruits mature, they are drawn below the water surface. Some species with small leaves may be eaten entirely by water fowl while others offer only seeds.
Wildmillet, also known as barnyard grass and watergrass, is found throughout Kansas in a variety of habitats. It grows in upland areas but grows best near water, especially on mud flats from which water has receded early in the growing season. Leaves and sheathes are smooth with stems branching profusely from the base to attain heights up to five feet. The smooth, moderately large seeds of these grasses are important food for ducks and other birds.
This large group of moist soil plants may be found growing in shallow water, along pond borders, and on mud flats that are covered by water in the late fall or winter. The leaves are coarser and rougher than those of most grasses. The fruits are usually borne on the solid, triangular stems. They provide food and cover for wildlife. Sedges are important to man as soil anchors and land builders in lowlands.
Lemna (Duckweed) These midget seed plants are among the smallest flowering plants in the world. Duckweeds are free-floating on the surface of ponds throughout the state and form dense mats late in summer. "Leaves" are two to five mm. long, radiating from a center point which bears tiny roots. In a classroom aquarium they make good examples of quick vegetative reproduction. They are used as food by wildlife.
Jussiaea (Water primrose) This conspicuous, prostrate, yellow-flowered plant is found spread out on moist banks or floating in shallow water near the edge of ponds. Its horizontal stems bear roots at the nodes in moist soil. In water, both descending fibrous roots and roots held near the surface by air-filled intercellular spaces are produced. It is scattered in range, chiefly in the eastern half of the state.
Euglena (no common name)
A green, spindle-shaped, single-celled organism with an extending whiplike filament (flagellum) used in locomotion. Green color of water is sometimes caused by the abundance of these organisms. Eye spot and mouth are usually visible. Microscopic.
Ameba (no common name)
Common on water plants or decaying leaves of water lilies. EaSily recognized as a jellylike mass with a changing shape and false feet (pseudopods). They serve as reducers and as food for consumers. Microscopic.
Paramecium (Slipper animalcule)
Rapid reproduction makes them plentiful if present. Recognized by their slipper shape, darting action across the microscopic field, and cilia on body used in locomotion. The oral groove and contractile vacuoles are conspicuous. Larger than Euglena. Useful as food for larger animals.
Hydra (no common name)
Contracts its body to a small size when disturbed but may extend it to a length of one-half inch at other times. Tentacles on the anterior end; basal end is usually attached to plants or rocks. Color is pink to greenish-orange. They belong to the same phylum as the jellyfish and corals.
Gordius (Hair worm)
A term applied to certain nonsegmented worms. They vary in size from microscopic to two feet long. Adults of common varieties are four to five inches long and spend only their adult life in water. Immature forms are parasitic to other animals. The female lays eggs in long strings after mating.
Eubranchippus (Fairy shrimp)
Body is transparent or pinkish-green and about one inch long. Their numerous appendages aid them in swimming on their back. Eggs may stay dormant for a long time and retain their viability. The Shrimp feed on larvae and are harmless to man. Good aquarium specimen.
Daphnia (Water flea)
One of many cladocerans found in ponds. Ovate body, which is 1 to 2 mm. long, has a tail spine and two prominent antennae used for swimming. These microscopic animals feed on algae and bacteria and are valuable as fish food. Good aquarium specimen.
Cyclops (no common name)
Their small, teardrop-shaped body is often visible to the naked eye. They feed on algae and other microscopic animals and are good food for aquarium fish.
Crayfish are abundant under rocks and are nocturnal in habit. They eat mostly animal matter. The female lays about 200 eggs which hatch in late May. The eggs, as well as nymphs, are carried on the abdominal appendages. After three weeks they become free swimming and may live for six or seven years.
They usually feed while flying about above the water. Adults have finely netted, veined wings that spread horizontally when at rest, a long, slender abdomen
and large, bulging eyes. They feed mostly on larvae of other aquatic insects. The similar damselfly folds its wings vertically when at rest. Immature stages
of these animals are aquatic.
Rotifera (Wheel animalcules)
Rotifera are recognized by the cilia movement on the anterior end which gives the appearance of a turning wheel while the posterior end rests on a surface.
The body is usually elongated but there is much variation in form and color.
Ranatra (Water scorpion)
They are found on the surface or in shallow water with only the posterior end protruding for air. They are up to three inches long and have a brownish color and a stick-like form with slender legs. A posterior filament on the abdomen forms a tube for breathing while submerged as it feeds on small animals. They have little economic value.
They are about one-half inch long with black and cream-colored back, and oar-like legs. They swim on their backs. Air is trapped on the underside of their body by the hind legs. Their bite is painful and is paralyzing to small aquatic animals used for food. They are of little economic value but make interesting aquarium specimens.
Lethocerus (Giant water bug)
Insects found in all parts of a pond or on lighted streets at times. Their three-inch body is brown, flat and broad with strong, grasping forelegs. They feed on anything they can capture and are very destructive in fish hatcheries.
Corixa (Water boatman)
Usually found on the bottom of a pond. Their body is about three-fourths inch long, often with red eyes. Swim right side up with oar-like legs, eat plant oozes and slime and are important food for game birds and fishes and, in some countries, man. Acceptable aquarium specimen.
Gerris (Water strider)
Usually in flocks on the surface of quiet waters. Elongated body one-half inch long with short wings and short forelegs for grasping. As scavengers, they feed on snails and flies. They have little economic value and are poor aquarium specimens.
Wrigglers (larvae) hang from surface to breathe air. Their body is almost transparent and nearly one-half inch long. They are most common in stale water and serve as food for small fish and other animals. Larvae emerge from water as adults after six or more days. Females are bloodsuckers; males suck plant juices.
Dineutes (Whirligig beetle)
Found in flocks on the surface of ponds and streams with a flat and oval body up to one-half inch long, blue-black or brown and black, with four compound eyes. Forelegs extend forward in reaching position. They swim in erratic paths, smell like apples and feed on other animals. They are valuable in mosquito control.
1. Breukelman, John, What Have I Caught?, Kansas Forestry, Fish and Game Commission, Pratt, Kansas, Bulletin No.7, Free
2. Buchsbaum, Ralph W., Animals Without Backbones, University of Chicago Press, 5750 Ellis Avenue, Chicago 37, Ill., 1938, $6.50
3. Chu, H. F., How to Know the Immature Insects, Wm. C. Brown Company, 1949, $2.50
4. Clarke, Robert F., Turtles in Kansas, The Kansas School Naturalist, Vol. 2, No.4. Supply exhausted, but available in many libraries.
5. Conard, Henry S., How to Know the Mosses, Wm. C. Brown Company, 915 Main St., Dubuque, Iowa, 1944, $2.00
6. Gates, Frank C., Weeds in Kansas, Kansas State Board of Agriculture, Topeka, Kansas, 1941, Free
7. Living Specimens in the School Laboratory, General Biological Supply House, 8200 South Hoyne Ave., Chicago 20, III., $1.00
8. Turtox Service Leaflets, General Biological Supply House, free to High School Biology teachers, $.02 per leaflet to others
9. Hall, E. Raymond, Handbook of Mammals of Kansas, University of Kansas Museum of Natural History, Lawrence, Kansas, 1955, $1.50
10. Jahn, T. L., How to Know the Protozoa, Wm. C. Brown Company, 1949, $2.50
11. Jacques, H. E., How to Know the Beetles, Wm. C. Brown Company, 1951, $3.30
12. ............ , How to Know the Insects, Wm. C. Brown Company, 1947, $2.00
13. Johnson, Leland P., Key to Some Common Freshwater Protozoa, Bios, Vol. 27, No.1, March 1956, $.25, order from Mrs. F. G. Brooks, Box 336, Madison Square Station, New York 10, N.Y.
14. Morgan, Ann Haven, Fieldbook of Ponds and Streams, G. P. Putnam's Sons, 210 Madison Avenue, N.Y. 16, NY, 1930, $3.50
15. Needham, James G. and Paul R Needham, A Guide to the Study of Freshwater Biology, Comstock Publishing Associates, 124 Roberts Place, Ithaca, N.Y., 1953, $1.00
16. Palmer, E. Laurence, Fieldbook of Natural History, McGraw-Hill Book Company Inc., 330 W. 42nd Street, New York 36, N.Y., 1949, $7.00
17. Prescott, G. W., How to Know Freshwater Algae, Wm. C. Brown Company, 1954, $2.25
18. Smith, Hobart M., Handbook of Amphibians and Reptiles of Kansas, University of Kansas Museum of Natural History, 1956, $1.50
19. Smith, Roger C. et al., Insects in Kansas, Kansas State Board of Agriculture, 1943, Free
20. Stevens, Wm. C., Kansas Wild Flowers, University of Kansas Press, Lawrence, Kansas, 1948, $7.50
21. Swain, Ralph E., The Insect Guide, Doubleday, Doran and Company, Garden City, New York, 1949, $3.00
22. United States Department of Agriculture, Insects, The Yearbook of Agriculture, 1952, Superintendent of Documents, Washington 25, D.C., $2.50
23. United States Department of Agriculture, Water, The Yearbook of Agriculture, 1955, Superintendent of Documents, Washington 25, D.C., $2.00
23. Ward, H. B. and G. C. Whipple, Freshwater Biology, John Wiley and Sons, 440 4th Ave., New York, N.Y., 1918, $9.50
25. Zim, Herbert S. and Clarence Cottam, Insects-A Guide to Familiar American Insects, Simon and Schuster, 630 Fifth Ave., New York 20, N.Y., 1951, $1.00
26. Zim, Herbert S. and D. F. Hoffmeister, Mammals, Simon and Schuster, 630 5th Ave., New York 20, N.Y., 1955, $1.00
27. Zim, Herbert S. and Alexander Martin, Flowers, Simon and Schuster, 1950, $1.00
28. Zim, Herbert S. and H. M. Smith, Reptiles and Amphibians, Simon and Schuster, 1953, $1.00
First Section-Three Weeks
June 3 to June 21, 1957
Credit-three semester hours
Graduate or Undergraduate
Geography and climate of Kansas, soil erosion and conservation practices, water resources, grass as a resource, wildlife conservation, bird banding in Kansas, the school yard as a conservation laboratory, conservation of wildflowers, field trips, discussion groups, projects.
Second Session-Three Weeks
June 24 to July 12, 1957
Credit-I, 2, or 3 hours for 1, 2, or 3 weeks
This section will be devoted to production of a suggested guide for teaching conservation in the elementary grades. Several scholarships are available. For admission to the workshop or for information, write the director, John Breukelman, State Teachers College, Emporia, Kansas.
MATERIAL FOR FOUR ISSUES of The Kansas School Naturalist was prepared by the 1956 Workshop in Conservation-Hawks (October, 1956, Vol. 3, No. 1), Life in a Pond, Spiders (to be published next) and Trees. Plans for future issues include Along the Roadside, A Suggested Guide for Conservation Teaching, Summer Wildflowers, Fossils, "How-to-do-it" for Elementary Science, Snakes, and Birds; neither the sequence nor exact scope of these has yet been decided. Other subjects suggested several times by readers are Life in a Shelterbelt, The Sunflower State, Outdoor Living, and Water.
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