KSN - Vol. 1, No. 4 - Let's Go OutdoorsVolume 1, Number 4 - April 1955

Let's Go Outdoors

ABOUT THIS ISSUE

Published by
The Kansas State Teachers College of Emporia
John E King, President

Prepared and Issued by
The Department of Biology, with the cooperation of the Divisions of Education and Social Science

Editor: John Breukelman, Head, Department of Biology
Editorial Committee: Ina M. Borman, Helen M. Douglass, Dixon Smith

Online format by: Terri Weast

The Kansas School Naturalist is sent upon request, free of charge to any citizen of Kansas.

The Kansas School Naturalist is published in October, December, February and April of each year by The Kansas State Teachers College, Emporia, Kansas. Second-class mail privileges authorized at Emporia, Kansas.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

MOST OF THIS ISSUE was compiled and prepared by Dixon Smith who teaches geography in the Division of geography in the Division of Social Science at Emporia State. Mr. Smith and Robert F. Clarke, senior biology student, prepared the map on pages 8 and 9. The negraving on page 5 was borrowed from The American Biology Teacher and the one on page 13 was borrowed from Nature Magazine.


Let's Go Outdoors

LET'S SEE WHAT THERE IS OUTDOORS

As any skillful teacher knows, a wealth of material for the study of nature or science is to be found near at hand. Surrounding almost any school in Kansas, at almost any time of year, are things to see and study - trees, grasses, weeds, rock ledges, fences, wind-blown sand, hedgerows, lawns, birds, insects, spiders, examples of soil erosion and soil building, roads, roofs. The list may be extended and subdivided as far as you like.

Is there a lawn around your school? Does it look the same along the north side of the building as along the south? Are there spots where grass does not grow? Are weeds growing in these spots? Are the dandelions evenly distributed? Are different kinds of clover present? After a rain, do angleworms come to the surface? Can you find any spider webs?

If your school is rural, perhaps there is a hedgerow near. What kind of trees or bushes are there? Rabbits, cardinals, turtles, bobwhite, insects, and many other kinds of animals live in and near hedgerows. The soil in a hedgerow is probably richer than in an adjacent field. Having been protected against erosion, it may be several inches or a foot above the level of the soil in the field. Not only do hedgerows protect the soil against erosion, but because leaves, dust, and other soil building materials accumulate there, soil is actually being built up in the hedgerow while in the adjacent field it is wearing away.

After a rain, there may be puddles of water with muddy flats; if so you may try being a detective. TurtIes, birds, squirrels, mice, cats, and many other visitors will leave their tracks in the mud. Compare these with the snow tracks pictured in The Kansas School Naturalist for December, 1954, page 9. For a short time immediately after a rain there will be little rivers, complete with tributaries, waterfalls, flood plains, dams, and deltas. The water will be muddy at first and gradually clear up. Here are many lessons in soil erosion.

Your school may be in the midst of a good place to hunt arrowheads, Indian beads, agates, fossil leaves, gypsum crystals, shark teeth, and the like. It may be near a heron colony, fish hatchery, prairie dog town, wildlife refuge, county, city, state or federal lake, sinkhole, gravel pit, salt marsh, game farm, irrigation canal, beaver dam, glacial moraine, chalk bluff, arboretum, tulip farm, buffalo ranch, spring, or artesian well - all these and many other areas of outdoor interest exist in Kansas.

WILD FOODS

Most of us who live in Kansas do not have to go far afield to find native plants that can be used for food. Some of these, like the wild strawberry of eastern Kansas, have been known as delicacies ever since people have lived here. Others, like the milkweed and cattail, have been overlooked either because they are only weeds, or because we just never thought of them as anything to eat.

We sometimes forget that our crop and garden plants, such as corn, potatoes, or cabbage, were developed from wild ancestral plants, and that some plants which grow wild in one place (such as the dandelion) may be raised in gardens or fields in some other localitv.

"Wild foods," as they were called by Eva L. Gordon*, can give those of us who love the outdoors an opportunity for new flavors and a sense of getting something useful from a trip outdoors.

Perhaps some future issue of The Kansas School Naturalist can be devoted to a detailed treatment of wild foods, but in this one, space will permit only a few precautions, a list of sample edible plants, a few sample recipes, and a description of a tin-can cooker.

*Eva L. Gordon, Wild Foods, Cornell Rural School Leaflet, Vol. 36, No.4, March 1943.

PRECAUTIONS:
1. Be a courteous collector; take only plants that are abundant; do not collect on others' property without permission; obey "No Trespassing" signs and other signs goveming the use of grounds.

2. Some wild plants are poisonous; do not use plants that you know nothing about.

3. Do not eat wild plants raw unless they grow where there is no chance for contamination.

SOME EDIBLE WILD PLANTS:

Dandelion - leaves, young roots

Water cress - leaves, young stems

Sheep sorrel - leaves, stems

Curly dock - young leaves

Burdock - young stems, leaves, roots

Shepherd's purse - young leaves

Chickweed - leaves and stems

Lamb's quarter - young leaves and seeds

Milkweed - young stems (like asparagus), young leaves, young pods

Cattail - young stems, pollen, roots

Arrowhead - tubers

Wild rice - seeds

Elderberry - fruits

Wild grape - fruits

Persimmon - fruits

Pawpaw - fruits

SAMPLE RECIPES:

1. Green salad - equal quantities of young dandelions, dock, and sorrel, tossed with French dressing, with a little chopped mint.

2. Burdock stems - peel leaf stalks of young burdock like rhubarb, drop into boiling water, cook until tender, drain, stir into pancake batter, fry in fat until brown.

3. Cattail-pollen pancakes - (late May and June) when upper parts of cattail "heads" are ready to shed their pollen, shake pollen into a bowl and substitute for about half the flour required for your favorite pancake recipe.

4. Young milkweed stalks on toast - cook like asparagus and serve on toast with your favorite white or vegetable sauce.

tin can cookerTIN-CAN COOKER:

The outdoor cooker in the accompanying figure was described by E. L. Palmer, in the January 1943 issue of The American Biology Teacher, as follows:

" . .. and I have prepared soup, biscuits, bacon and French toast in less than twenty-three minutes from the time I lit the first match ... This combination cooker uses four tin cans. Two of these are one-pound coffee cans. One of these is prepared with a simple wire handle. In it, I place water and enough dried soup material to make a good soup. Above this can I place the second coffee can, which serves as my oven or for the making of cocoa or native 'tea.' The boiler beneath serves as an insulating area and prevents my biscuits from buming. In the baker, I place biscuit dough made after a variety of recipes. Prepared biscuit flour may prove to be the simplest material to use though native flour may be had from such plants as cattails . . . The two coffee cans are placed on top of my 'stove,' which consists of a gallon oil can I salvaged from the dump. I have cut out a door about four inches long and the same height, into which I can thrust my fuel of pencil-size dry sticks. The top of this stove has been cut crudely to let the heat and flames arise but has a skeleton of tin to support my coffee-can boiler and baker. I now place my stove in position; on it, the two coffee cans. Now I make my fryer. This consists of another can about the size of the stove but deep enough to cover my coffee can, and wide enough to allow free circulation of air between. The bottom of this can is open and the opposite end entire. Near this top I cut two flues on opposite sides about an inch deep and four inches wide. This fryer sets on the stove over the boiler and baker. On its top I fry bacon and French toast at the same time. I build a fire in the stove and fry the bacon. In the grease I lay a piece of bread with a hole in it the size of the yolk of an egg. In this hole I drop the egg, and when the egg is fried firm to one side of the bread, I turn bread and egg together ... there should have been enough heat in the coffee cans to boil the soup and bake the biscuits. You then thrust a stick through the flues in the fryer, lift it off and there the biscuits and soup are ready to be eaten."

LAKES IN KANSAS

Vistiors to our state are usually surprised to find that it is fairly dotted with lakes. True, they may not have the majestic setting of a mountain tarn (or appear as a glacial memento in the northern forest) yet for an outdoors-loving family nothing is more pleasant than an evening at the lake. Picnicking, fishing, boating, swimming or even camping out all night are possibilities that await you. You might find new plants, birds, or other animals that you won't see elsewhere.

Geologists tell us that lakes are characteristic of young landscapes. In older landscapes erosion either wears down the outlets of lakes and drains them, or fills them with sediment and vegetation. Kansas has a relatively old landscape, so we have found it necessary to counteract Mother Nature and make our own lakes.

Kansas has more than 120 public artificial lakes and an equal number of private lakes (over 10 acres in size) giving a total water area of over 60 square miles at normal levels. There were no state or county lakes and few city lakes before 1930. Over half the public lakes in the state were constructed from 1935 through 1940. Most of the city lakes were constructed for water supply, and all of the state and county lakes for fishing and recreation. The federal reservoirs are multipurpose.

                       

County State or County Location Highway Access Lake Area (Acres) Fishing Boating Boats for Rent Swimming Picnicking Overnight Camping Map Key
Allen C                    
Atchison C 5W Huron 73 91             2
Barber S N edge Medicine Lodge 281 64             1
Bourbon C 2N Hiatville K39 106             4
Brown S 7 1/2 E: 1 S Hiawatha 36 60             1
Butler S 3W: 1N Augusta 54 232 x x x x x x 1
                       
Chase S 3 W Cottonwood Falls 50S 100             1
Clark S 10 W: 1S Kingsdown 54 337 x x x   x    
Clay C Near Wakefield K82 18             1
Cowley S 13 NE Arkansas City 166 80             1
Crawford No. 1 S 4 N Pittsburg K7 150 x x     x x 1
Crawford No. 2 S 1N:1E Farlington K7 169 x x     x x 2
                       
Decatur No. 1 S 1N Oberlin 83 47 x x         1
Decatur No. 2 S 1N:1E Oberlin 36 161 x x     x x 2
Douglas C 11W:3N Baldwin City 50N-59 195 x x   x x x 4
Douglas C     7              
Ellsworth C 8N Hollyrood 40 23   x     x x 2
Finney S 8N:3W Kalvesta 50-K23 324 x       x   1
                       
Ford C N Dodge City 50S-283 65             4&5
Franklin C                    
Graham C 3NW Morland 24 85   x     x x 1
Grant S 1 1/2 E Ulysses 160 325 x       x   1
Harvey C 3 NW Halstead 50S-K89     x     x x 2
Hodgeman C 6W:1S Jetmore 50N 33   x       x 1
                       
Jewell S 6S:4W Mankato 36-K128 43             1
Jewell C     15             2
Kearney S 2E Lakin 50S 3,000 x       x   1
Kingman S 8W Kingman 54 80 x       x x 1
Leavenworth S 3W:1N Tonganoxie 24-40 175 x x x   x x 1
Logan S 4NW Russell Springs 40-K25 60              
                       
Logan C     15              
Lyon S 5W:1N Reading K99 135 x x     x x 1
Marion C SE Marion 50N-77 152   x   x x x 1
McPherson S 7N:2 1/2 W Canton 50N 43             1
McPherson C 3E:1N Inman K17     x   x x x 3
Meade S 7S:5W Meade K98 100 x x     x x 1
                       
Miami S 12 SE Paola 69 90 x x     x x 1
Montgomery S 4 1/2 SE Independence 169 105             1
Nemaha S 1 E: 4 S Seneca K63 359 x x x x x x 1
Neosho S 5N:3E Parsons 59 92 x x   x x x 1
Norton C At Lenora K9 69   x     x x 1
Ottawa S 5N:1E Bennington 81-K93 138 x x x x     1
                       
Pottawatomie S 5N Westmoreland K99 24 x x     x x 1
Pottawatomie S 4NE Manhattan 40 75             2
Pratt C SE of Pratt 54-K64 96   x     x x 1
Republic S 5N:2W Jamestown K28 765             1
Rooks S 3S:2W Stockton 183 67             1
Rush C     16              
                       
Saline C                    
Scott S 12N Scott City 83 115 x x x x x x 1
Sedgwick C 3E:3S Garden Plain 54 238             3
Shawnee C SE of Topeka 40-75 393 x x   x x   2
Sheridan S 4N:2E Quinter K97 124 x       x x 1
Sheridan C     160              
                       
Stafford C     3              
Sumner C                    
Woodson S 5E Toronto 54 179 x x     x x 1
Wyandotte C NW of Kansas City K5 332         x   3

Kansas lakes and parks

KEY TO MAP

L - Lake

M - Historical Marker P - State Park triangle - Other Point of Interest
       

ALLEN COUNTY
M1, Boyhood home of General Funston
L2, lola City Lake

ANDERSON COUNTY
L1, Garnett Lake
L2, Garnett Reservoir

ATCHISON COUNTY
M1, Atchison
L2, Atchison County Lake

BARBER COUNTY
P1, Barber County State Lake
M2, Medicine Lodge Peace Treaties
triangle3, Twin Buttes and Gypsum Hills
triangle4, Natural Bridge

BARTON COUNTY
M1, Pawnee Rock
M2, Fort Zarah
triangle3, Cheyenne Bottoms
triangle4, Frank Robl Game Refuge
triangle5, Geographic Center of Kansas

BOURBON COUNTY
M1, Fort Scott
L2, Fort Scott Lake
L3, Fort Scott Reservoir
L4, Bourbon County
Lake

BROWN COUNTY
P1, Brown County State Lake
L2, Horton City Lake
L3, Hiawatha Lake

BUTLER COUNTY
P1, Butler County State Lake
L2, Augusta Lake
L3, El Dorado Lake I
L4, El Dorado Lake II
L5, Leon Lake

CHASE COUNTY
P 1, Chase County State Lake
triangle2, Knute Rockne
Memorial

CHAUTAUQUA
COUNTY
L1, Sedan Lake

CHEROKEE COUNTY M1, Baxter Springs
Massacre
triangle2, State Forest
triangle3, Strip Mine Lakes

CHEYENNE COUNTY
L1, St. Francis Lake

CLARK COUNTY
P1, Clark County State Lake
triangle2, Big Basin and
Little Basin

CLAY COUNTY
L1, Clay County Lake

COMANCHE COUNTY triangle1, Hell's Half Acre

COWLEY COUNTY
P1, Cowley County State
Lake
M2, Opening of
Cherokee Outlet

CRAWFORD COUNTY
P1, Crawford County
State Lake, No. 1
P2, Crawford County
State Lake, No.2
triangle3, Strip Mine Lakes
triangle4, State Quail Farm
triangle5, State Forest

DECATUR COUNTY
P1, Decatur County
State Lake, No. 1
P2, Decatur County State Lake, No.2
M3, Last Indian Raid in
Kansas

DICKINSON COUNTY M1, End of Chisholm
Trail
M2, Father Juan de Padilla, and Quivira
L3, Herington Lake
triangle4, Eisenhower Home and Memorial

DONIPHAN COUNTY
M1, Highland Presbyterian Mission
M2, Elwood
triangle3, White Cloud Lookout

DOUGLAS COUNTY
M1, Lecompton Slavery Capitol
M2, Lawrence
M3, Battle of Black Jack
L4, Lone Star Lake
L5, Baldwin Lake

ELK COUNTY
L1, Howard Lake
L2, Moline Lake I
L3, Moline Lake II
triangle4, Waterfalls on Elk River

ELLIS COUNTY
M1, Fort Hays
L2, Ellis Lake

ELLSWORTH COUNTY
M1, Fort Harker
L2, Holyrood Lake (County)
triangle3, Kanopolis Reservoir (Federal)

FINNEY COUNTY
P1, Finney County State Lake
M2, Indian and Buffalo
triangle3, Game preserve

FORD COUNTY
M1, Dodge City, Cowboy Capitol
M2, Fort Dodge
L3, Grandview Lake
L4, Ford County Lake I
L5, Ford County Lake II

FRANKLIN COUNTY
L1, Ottawa Lake

GEARY COUNTY
M1, First Capitol of Kansas
M2, Fort Riley

GOVE COUNTY
triangle1, Castle Rock
triangle2, Monument Rocks

GRAHAM COUNTY
L1, Graham County Lake

GRANT COUNTY
P1, Grant County State Lake
M2, Wagon Bed Springs

GREENWOOD COUNTY
L1, Eureka Lake
L2, Severy Lake
triangle3, Fall River Reservoir (Federal)

HAMILTON COUNTY
triangle1, Sink Hole

HARPER COUNTY
M1, Old Runnymede
L2, Anthony Lake

HARVEY COUNTY
M1, Red Turkey Wheat
L2, Harvey County Lake

HODGEMAN COUNTY
L1, Hodgeman County Lake

JACKSON COUNTY
L1, Whiting Lake
L2, Holton Lake
L3, Soldier Lake

JEFFERSON COUNTY
M1, Battle of Hickory Point

JEWELL COUNTY
P1, Jewell County State Lake
L2, Jewell County Lake
L3, Mankato Lake

JOHNSON COUNTY
M1, Oregon and Santa Fe Trails
M2, Shawnee Friends Mission
L3, Gardner Lake
L4, Olathe Lake

KEARNEY COUNTY
P1, Kearney County State Lake
M2, Choteau's Island

KINGMAN COUNTY
P1, Kingman County State Lake
triangle2, State Quail Farm

KIOWA COUNTY
triangle1, World's Largest Hand-dug Well

LABETTE COUNTY
L1, Parsons Lake

LEAVENWORTH COUNTY
P1, Leavenworth County State Lake
triangle2, Only Covered Bridge Left in Kansas

 

LINCOLN COUNTY
M1, Lincoln County Indian Raid

LINN COUNTY
M1, Marais des Cygnes Massacre
M2, Battle of Mine Creek
L3, Pleasanton Lake
L4, Mound City Lake
triangle5, Wildlife Refuge

LOGAN COUNTY
P1, Logan County State Lake
L2, Russell Springs Lake
triangle3, Bad Lands and Chalk Bluffs

LYON COUNTY
P1, Lyon County State Lake

MARION COUNTY
L1, Marion County Lake

MARSHALL COUNTY
M1, Marysville
L2, Waterville Lake
triangle3, Alcove Springs

McPHERSON COUNTY
P1, McPherson County State Lake
M2, Kansas Indian Treaty
L3, McPherson County Lake
triangle4, Maxwell Game Preserve

MEADE COUNTY
P1, Meade County State Lake
M2, Lone Tree Massacre
triangle3, State Fish Hatchery and Pheasant Farm
triangle4, Sink Hole

MIAMI COUNTY
P1, Miami County State Lake
L2, Osawatomie Lake
L3, Paola Lake

MITCHELL COUNTY
M1, Waconda Springs

MONTGOMERY COUNTY
P1, Montgomery County State Lake
M2, Civil War Battle, Drum Creek Treaty
L3, Cherryvale Lake
L4, Coffeyville Lake
triangle5, Lowest Elevation in Kansas

MORRIS COUNTY
M1, Council Grove
L2, Council Grove Lake I
L3, Kahola Lake
L4, Council Grove
Lake II

NEMAHA COUNTY
P1, Nemaha County
State Lake
L2, Sabetha Lake

NEOSHO COUNTY
P1, Neosho County State
Lake
M2, Neosho Mission
M3, Osage Catholic
Mission
L4, Parsons Lake

NORTON COUNTY
L1, Norton County Lake
L2, Almena Lake

OSAGE COUNTY
L1, Burlingame Lake
L2, Osage City Lake
L3, Lyndon Lake

OSBORNE COUNTY M1, Geodetic Center of
North America
L2, Alton Lake
triangle3, Geodetic Datum of North America

OTTAWA COUNTY
P1, Ottawa County
State Lake
triangle2, Rock City

PAWNEE COUNTY
M1, Fort Larned

PHILLIPS COUNTY
L1, Logan Lake
L2, Agra Lake
L3, Kirwin Reservoir
(Federal)

POTTAWATOMIE COUNTY
P1, Pottawatomie
County State Lake No. 1
P2, Pottawatomie County State Lake No. 2
M3, St. Mary's

PRATT COUNTY
L1, Pratt County Lake
triangle2, State Headquarters, Forestry, Fish and Game Commission

RAWLINS COUNTY
L1, Atwood Lake

RENO COUNTY
triangle1, Salt Mines

REPUBLIC COUNTY
P1, Republic County State Lake
M2, Pike-Pawnee Village

RICE COUNTY
M1, Coronado and Quivira
L2, Little River Lake
L3, Sterling Lake

RILEY COUNTY
triangle1, Bala Volcanic Pipe
triangle2, Leonardville Igneous Intrusion
triangle3, Stockton Volcanic Pipe

ROOKS COUNTY
P1 Rooks County State Lake
L2, Plainville Lake

RUSH COUNTY
L1, Rush County Lake

RUSSELL COUNTY
L1, Lucas Lake
L2, Russell City Lake

SALINE COUNTY
M1, Indian Burial Ground
triangle2, Coronado Heights

SCOTT COUNTY
P1, Scott County State Lake
M2, El Quartelejo
triangle3, Intermittent Lake

SEDGWICK COUNTY
M1, Treaties with Indians
M2, Chisholm Trail
L3, Sedgwick County Lake

SHAWNEE COUNTY
M1, Capitol of Kansas
L2, Shawnee County Lake

SHERIDAN COUNTY
P1, Sheridan County State Lake

SMITH COUNTY
M1, Geographic Center of United States
L2, Smith Center Lake

STAFFORD COUNTY
triangle1, Salt Marsh Refuge

SUMNER COUNTY
M1, Caldwell and Chisholm Trail
L2, Wellington Lake
L3, Caldwell Lake
triangle4, Bartlett Arboretum

TREGO COUNTY
L1, Cedar Bluff Reservoir (Federal)

WABAUNSEE COUNTY
L1, Eskridge Lake

WALLACE COUNTY
M1, Fort Wallace
triangle2, Highest Elevation in Kansas
triangle3 , Smoky Basin Cave-in, Old Maid's Pool

WASHINGTON COUNTY
M1, Pony Express Station

WILSON COUNTY
L1, Fredonia Lake I
L2, Fredonia Lake II

WOODSON COUNTY
P1, Woodson County State Lake
L2, Yates Center Lake
triangle3, Native Granite

WYANDOTTE COUNTY
M1, Emigrant Tribes
M2, Kansas City, Kans.
L3, Wyandotte County Lake

KANSAS ROADSIDE PARKS

In the following list the roadside parks are arranged by highways, all except those preceded by "K" being federal highways. All of the parks listed have tables and fireplaces; some have water and toilets, these being deSignated by the letters "w" and "T" following the name of the town. The usual letters (N-north, S-south, E-east, and W-west) are used to show directions, and when a number is given also, this indicates the distance in miles. Thus, the first listing means that the park is west of Belvue and has water and toilets.

24-W Belvue, W, T
24-12 W Kansas City
24-W Reno
24-E Topeka
24-Junction US 81
24-N Beloit, W, T
24-Downs, W
24-W Stockton
36-E Troy
36-W Highland, T
36-W Hiawatha, W
36-W Fairview, T
36-E Seneca, W
36-5 W Marysville, T
36-E Washington
36-Rydal
36-Scandia, W
36-Kensington, W, T
36-N Norton, W
36-E McDonald
36-W St. Francis
40-E Junction City, W, T
40-Abilene

40-Wilson
40-W Hays, W
40-W Ellis, W, T
50-NE Olathe, T
50N-E Baldwin
50N-Junction US 59, T
50N-E Council Grove
50N-E Great Bend, W, T
50N-E Garden City
50S-Ottawa, W, T
50S-N Burlington
50S-l2 E Emporia, T
50S-4 W Emporia
50S-W Clements
50S-Florence, W
50S-E Newton, T
50S-Kinsley, W, T
50S-E Garden City
50S-W Garden City
54-E Yates Center
54-16 E Kingman
54-13 E Pratt, W, T
54-E Greensburg

54-Meade, W
54-Liberal, W
59-S Ottawa, W, T
59-S Garnett
59-W lola, W
59-W Oswego, W, T
69-Trading Post
69-S Pittsburg
73-S Leavenworth
73-E Junction US 24
75-W Fairview, T
75-1 S Topeka
75-8 S Topeka, T
75-N Burlington, T
75-S Altoona
75-Neodesha, W, T
77-NE Blue Rapids, T
77-Florence, W
77-E Douglass
77-S Winfield
81-Junction US 24
81-N Salina, W, T
81-8 N Lindsborg

81-McPherson
81-N Wichita, W, T
81-8 N Wellington
83-Oberlin, W
160-E Independence, T
160-Oxford, W, T
160-S Harper, W
160-W Medicine Lodge, W, T
160-E Ashland, T
169-N Osawatomie, W
183-12 N Hays
283-S Minneola, W
K10-S Merriam
K10-5 E Jct. K13 and US 40
K13-2 S Wichita
K16-E Denison
K17-N Hutchinson
K18-N Bogue, W
K31-Kincaid
K42-SW Wichita
K45-Kinsley, W, T
K96-E Crestline
K96-Leon
K292-W Leavenworth

 


BACK YARD PICNICS

Backyard Picnics

You don't have to take a long trip to go on a picnic, and you don't need fancy equipment. You may have a perfectly good picnic right in your own back yard, in the school yard, or in a nearby vacant lot or clump of trees in a pasture corner. An old apple box or log may be used to sit on, and a flat rock or board may serve as a table. As shown in the accompanying pictures a fireplace may be built out of rocks, bricks, sticks, an old wheel or other metal piece from the trash pile or city dump. In fact, it may be more fun to see what you can build yourself than to start out with a lot of equipment already there.

If you decide to have a fire, select a safe place for it, at least 10 or 12 feet from any tree or building. Do not make a large fire; pencil-sized sticks are big enough for cooking an entire meal, either in a cooker such as the one shown on page 5 or the brick fireplace such as the one on this page. Do not build a fire
under an overhanging branch of a shade tree. Clear the area of paper, dry grass, or other materials in which a fire might spread. When you are through with the fire, put it out by pouring water over it or by covering it with earth, so there will be no chance of its smoldering for a time and flaring up later.

Leave the site of your picnic clean. If there is no trash container, burn the trash before putting out the fire, or bury it, or wrap it up and take it home to your own trash can.

While you are looking around for suitable sticks, rocks, bricks or other materials, keep your eyes open for the things of nature about you.

 


BE SURE to return the center insert, as soon as you know your 1955-56 address.


Litterbug
ARE YOU A LITTERBUG?

"The character at the right is no gentleman. In fact, he is a noxious, two-legged insect in human form. He strews refuse in city parks, at the beach, and on the countryside. He leaves his debris at picnic spot, along stream bank, in national park and forest. He is a thoroughly undesirable individual with the
most atrocious outdoor manners. He is fittingly represented as a harmful insect, and what is hoped to be a lethal insecticide for him has been devised in the organization of Keep America Beautiful."

The above quotation and cut appeared in the January, 1955, issue of Nature Magazine, in an article entitled "Insecticide for the Litterbug." The article deals with Keep America Beautiful, Inc., also known as KAB, a voluntary organization whose purpose is implied in its name.

The formation of KAB was prompted by the increasing amount of litter accumulating along the roads, in parks and other scenic areas.

The KAB movement is supported by nature organizations, women's clubs, business firms, farm organizations, youth groups, service clubs, conservation agencies, as well as various government agencies and schools. It is hoped that more and more local and state organizations will become allied with KAB, so that every area in the country will be covered.

The national office of KAB has prepared some teaching materials with suggestions for their use; further information may be obtained from Keep America Beautiful, Inc., 100 Park Avenue, New York 17, N.Y.

In the meantime all Kansas teachers and pupils can do many things to keep Kansas beautiful. Some things everyone can do are: (1) put paper plates and cups, bottles and bottle tops, tin cans, candy and gum wrappers, and other litter in trash containres (sic) where they belong instead of leaving them scattered about, (2) organize "clean-up" days, (3) carry a "litter-bag" in the car instead of tossing litter out the car window onto the road, and (4) encourage others to help. No doubt you can think of many other things to do to help Keep America Beautiful.

HINTS FOR YOUR VACATION TRIP

Are you getting anxious for vacation time to arrive? To many Americans, vacation means travel. If that's what you have in mind, here are a few hints that might help.

Make plans well ahead. Making plans is almost as much fun as the trip itself. Get some maps; your gasoline dealer will help you, maybe even supply you with a booklet of maps with your route laid out and a description of interesting places along the way. The state highway departments of the states you will visit will also supply you with maps and other information. Inquire about good places to stay and eat on your route. Make all necessary reservations well ahead of time. Read about the places you expect to visit; they'll be more interesting as a result.

Even though it's a "travel" vacation, don't try to go too far, possibly not over 1000 miles a week. Try concentrating on one rather limited area, staying a few days at one place. You can take short daily excursions and still have a more restful time. You'll probably appreciate and remember the days spent in one place more than all the rest of the trip.

Take advantage of the wayside and historic sites. Buy a small ice chest and keep it stocked with food so that you can stop wherever you find a good place. It will be fun, you'll learn about the country, and besides, you'll save enough money to pay for the ice chest.

Why spend any of your time doing things you can do at home, such as sleeping half the morning, attending movies, watching TV, or playing canasta?

Try to get the feel of the country you're in; be friendly and talk with local people; ask questions; inquire at local Chambers of Commerce or information centers for good eating places and points of interest in their localities.

How about camping out? You'll get more vacation for your money this way than any other. Near essentials are: camp stove, tent, sleeping gear, cooking and eating equipment, ice chest, lantern or flashlight, water pail.

Camp only in authorized areas, but try to find the lesser known places - the better known spots are crowded. In any case, plan to arrive at the camp site well before supper time so you can make camp and eat before dark.

Here are a few suggestions for places to visit:

ONE-WEEK TRIP:
1. Black Hills and Bad Lands of South Dakota
2. Ozarks of Missouri and Arkansas
3. Colorado, east of the Continental Divide
4. St. Louis area; Mississippi River and Lincoln country
5. Chicago

TWO-WEEK TRIP:
1. Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota-Western Great Lakes
2. Kentucky and Tennessee
3. Gulf Coast
4. Arizona and New Mexico
5. Utah
6. Wyoming

THREE-WEEK TRIP:
Just about any place in the United States and adjacent parts of Mexico and Canada, if you don't try to see everything on the way going and returning

By the way, have you seen all the interesting places in Kansas shown on the map on pages 8 and 9?


TO HELP YOU LEARN MORE ABOUT KANSAS

 

  1. A Kansas Atlas, Kansas Industrial Development Commission, Topeka, 1952, (Your County Superintendent).
  2. Fifteenth Biennial Report, June 30, 1954, Kansas Forestry, Fish and Game Commission, Pratt, Kansas.
  3. Kansas, Our State, Goebel, Heffellinger, and Gammon, Topeka, 1952.
  4. Kansas-Points of Interest, Historic, Scenic, Recreational, January, 1942, State Highway Commission, Topeka, Kansas.
  5. Official 1955 Highway Map of Kansas, State Highway Commission, Topeka, Kansas.
  6. State Parks of Kansas, Kansas Forestry, Fish, and Game Commission, Pratt, Kansas.
  7. The Kansas Scene, Grace Muilenburg, State Geological Survey of Kansas, University of Kansas, Lawrence.
  8. To the Stars, "Kansas Tourist Guide," Vol. IX, No.1, JanuaryFebruary, 1954, Kansas Industrial Development Commission, Topeka, Kansas.
  9. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science, "The Geography of Kansas," Part I; Political Geography by Walter H. Schoewe, September, 1949.
  10. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science, "The Geography of Kansas," Part II; Physical Geography by Walter H. Schoewe, September, 1949.
  11. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science, "The Geography of Kansas," Part III; Hydrogeography, by Walter H. Schoevve, September, 1951.
  12. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science, "The Geography of Kansas," Part III concluded; Hydogeography by Walter H. Schoewc, June, 1953.
  13. Water Resources Development by The Corps of Engineers in Kansas, January, 1953, Southwestern Division, Dallas, Texas.
  14. Inscriptions on Kansas Historical Markers 1940-41, Reprint from The Kansas Historical Quarterly, Nov. 1941, Distributed by The Kansas Highway Commission; Topeka.
  15. Kansas State Highway System Weekly Service Map, The Kansas Highway Commission, Topeka.
  16. Directory of Public Officials in Kansas 1953 "Public Improvements in Cities and Counties," Bull. No. 110.53, July 25, 1953, The League of Kansas Municipalities, Topeka, Kansas.

 

 


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